4. GASTEROMYCETEAE

4.1. Hymenogastrales

HYMENOGASTRACEAE

Gymnoglossum radiatum (Lloyd) Bottomley

Bottomley (1948) 499.

Hymenogaster radiatus Lloyd (1921) 1304 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 166 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 198 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 166.

Dendrogaster radiatus (Lloyd) Zeller & Dodge, Dodge & Zeller (1934) 688.

in leaf mold at foot of tree, Salisbury, Eyles 2530 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 30493 ; Rh. 3826) 17795.

Hydnangium carneum Wallr.

Bottomley (1948) 497.

Octaviania carnea (Wallr.) Corda, Lloyd (1924) 1319 ; Verwoerd (1925 b) 161 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 195 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Nel (1942) 67.

buried in humus, Stellenbosch Flats, Duthie 325 (v. d. Byl 2096) 28871 ; Knysna, J. Phillips.

Hydnangium nigricans Kalchbr.

Kalchhrenner (1882 a) 107 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. XI: 172 ; Dodge & Zeller (1936) 592; Bottomley (1948) 498.

grass under Acacia trees, at foot of Boschherg, MacOwan 1211, Kew & Berlin.

Hymenogaster albellus Mass. & Rodway

Dodge & Zeller (1934) 669 ; Bottomley (1948) 492.

as Hymenogaster lilacinus Tul., Lloyd (1924) 1304, 1319 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 166, Nel (1942) 67.

in soil, Stellenbosch, Duthie 209 (Lloyd Myc. Coll.) 2886, Duthie 324, 28867 : Cape Town, Péringuey, 1735 ; Groote Schuur, J. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 259) ; 35544.

Hymenogaster arenarius Tul.

Lloyd (1919) 889 ; Bottomley (1918) 483.

in sandy soil in woods, without locality, Duthie.

Doubtful record.

Hymenogaster levisporus Massee & Rodway

Bottomley (1949) 492.

in soil, Kirstenbosch, E. L. Stephens 368, 27674.

592

Hymenogaster zeylanicus Petch

Bottomley (1948) 493.

on damp, sandstone walls of a dark cave, Noodsberg, Lawrence, 28873.

Melanogaster ambiguus (Vitt.) Tul.

Bottomley (1948) 498.

under Hydrangeas, in shade of oak trees, Howick, Gill, 25506.

Octaviania africana Lloyd

Lloyd (1922) 1142; Verwoerd (1925 b) 164; Nel (1942) 67; Bottomley (1948) 495.

Sclerogaster africanus Lloyd (1916 d) L. 63 : 4, nom. nud. ; van der Byl (1925 b) 165 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161.

Arcangeliella africana (Lloyd) Zeller & Dodge (1935) 365, (1936) 614.

in rich humus soil in forest, Forest Hall, Knysna, Duthie 97 (v. d. Byl 2097 ; Lloyd Myc. Coll. 7198) 31350.

Octaviania flava (Rodway) G. H. Cunn.

Bottomley (1948) 496.

on damp sandstone wall of dark cave, Noodsberg, Lawrence, 28872.

Protubera africana Lloyd

Lloyd (1920) 960, 987 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 286 ; Verwoerd (1925 b) 163 ; Fischer (1933) 28 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 200 ; Zeller (1939) 22 ; Nel (1942) 67 ; Bottomley (1948) 499.

om damp, clayey soil, Papegaaisberg, Duthie 233 (v. d. Byl 2094 ; Lloyd Myc. Coll. 22143), Duthie 243 (Stell. 282 ; v. d. Byl 2331 ; Lloyd Myc. Coll. 22144).

Doubtful species ; probably a phalloid egg (Bottomley l.c.).

Rhizopogon capensis Lloyd ex Verwoerd

Verwoerd (1925 a) 165 ; Lloyd (1924) 1321, nom. nud.; Bottomley (1948) 488.

in ground under pine trees, Pinelands, E. L. Stephens 335 ; Stellenbosch, Verwoerd ; Stellenbosch, Duthie (E. L. Stephens 416).

Rhizopogon luteolus Fr.

Lloyd (1915 a) L. 60 : 3, (1923) 1171, (1924) 1304 ; Zeller & Dodge (1918)

10 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 286 ; Verwoerd (1925 b) 165, (1931 a) 300 ; Bottomley (1948) 486.

as Rhizopogon pachyphloeus Zeller & Dodge (1918) 9.

as Melanogaster macowanianum Kalchhr. in Herb. Kew.

in ground, nr. Johannesburg, Pole Evans, 1903 ; Stellenbosch, Duthie 77 (Lloyd Myc. Coll.) 31335, Kew ex Herb. C. G. Lloyd ; Stellenbosch Flats, Duthie 249, 31430 ; near Somerset East, MacOwan (Rabenh. Fung. Eur. 3436 ; Mo. Bot. Gard. Herb. 5646) 20950, Kew ; Bloemfontein, Verwoerd.

Rhizopogon niger (Lloyd) Zeller & Dodge

Zeller & Dodge (1929) 122 ; Bottomley (1948) 487.

Hysterangium niger Lloyd (1923) 1173 ; Verwoerd (1925 b) 163 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 163 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 198.

on ground, Knysna, Duthie (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 22394 Type ; Dodge Herb. 353 ; Zeller Herb. 7256).

593

Rhizopogon radicans Lloyd

Lloyd (1922) 1160, 1174 ; Verwoerd (1925 b) 165 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 200; Bottomley (1948) 488.

in ground, Knysna, Duthie (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 50861).

Rhizopogon rubescens Tul.

Massee (1889) 39 ; Lloyd (1920) 960, (1922) 1122, 1166, (1924) 1319 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 286 ; Verwoerd (1925 b) 164 ; Bottomley (1948) 487.

on ground, Cape Town, MacOwan, Kew ; Stellenbosch, Duthie 337 (v. d. Byl 475) 31494 ; Sterkstroom, Duthie 210, 31399 ; Pinelands, E. L. Stephens, 24845 ; Jessievale, D.F.O., 17095 ; du Toits Park, Stellenbosch, Duthie 245, 31425 ; Keurboom Park, Newlands, E. L. Stephens 336 ; near Pipe Track, Newlands, P. C. de Kock (E. L. Stephens 464) ; University grounds, Rosebank, E. L. Stephens 463.

Sclerogaster salisburiensis Verw.

Verwoerd (1926 b) 293 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115 ; Bottomley (1948) 490.

on ground in bushveld, Salisbury, Eyles 4104 (Stell. 213 ; v. d. Byl 2224).

SECOTIACEAE

Gyrophragmium delilei Mont.

Fischer (1933) 116 ; Bottomley (1948) 508.

on ground, Brackenfel, Acocks, Kew ; Olifantshoek Road, Kuruman Distr., Acocks, 28640, Kew ; Kimberley, Acocks, 28624, 28635, Kew ; Knockbarragh, Barkly West, Acocks. 28634.

Macowanites agaricinus Kalchbr.

Kalchbrenner (1876) 116, (1882 a) 107 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 179 ; Lloyd (1923) 1198 ; Zeller & Dodge (1919) 58, (1936) 636 ; Verwoerd (1925 b)

166 ; Fischer (1898) 299, (1933) 111 ; Ramsbottom (1942) 336; Bottomley (1948) 503.

Macowania agaricina Berkeley (1876 b) 248, (1876 c) 785.

amongst grass at foot of trunks of Acacia karroo, in fields near Somerset East, MacOwan 1211, 22087, Kew & Upsala.

Polyplocium inquinans Berk.

Berkeley (1843 a) 202 ; Montagne (1843 b, c) ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 55 ; Lloyd (1924) 1318, (1925) 1341 ; Verwoerd (1925 b) 16, 40 ; Fischer (1933) 115 ; Bottomley (1948) 506.

Gyrophragmium inquinans (Berk.) Lloyd (1904 a) 197.

on banks of Orange River, Burke & Zeyher ; South Africa, without locality, Kew; Malcomess, Knapdaar, Gideon Joubert, 14504 ; Burghersdorp, Gideon Joubert, 28739 b; Armoedsvlakte, Vryburg, Pole Evans, 11856 ; Lake Chrissie, Pole Evans, 18115.

Secotium gueinzii Kunze

Kunze (1840) 322 ; Berkeley (1843 a) 201, (1843 b) 523 ; Corda (1854) 29 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 52 ; Verwoerd (1925 b) 16, 40; Fischer (1933) 114; Bottomley (1948) 501.

in sand, Cape, Gueinzius ; Uitenhage, Zeyher 9 ; Brackenfel, Acocks (E. L. Stephens 159, 307) 26655 ; Stikland, J. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 230) ; van Schuur's Drift, Mathews & E. L. Stephens (E. L. Stephens 528) 35531 ; Signal Hill, Foley (S.A.M.).

594

Secotium obtusum Lloyd

Lloyd (1924) 1318, nom. nud.; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 193; Bottomley (1948) 502.

on open ground, Malcomess, Knapdaar, Gideon Joubert (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 24876) 18113, Type ; in grey silt, Cornforth Hill, J. Acocks, 28644.

4.2. PHALLALES

CLATHRACEAE

Anthurus archeri (Berk.) Ed. Fisch.

Bottomley (1948) 522.

Anthurus macowani Marloth (1913) 22, Pl. 3 ; Lloyd (1916 b) 570, (1917 c) 690, (1917 a) L. 66 : 3, 8 ; van der By1 (1922 d) 286 ; Nel (1942) 71 ; Cunningham (1944) 101.

on ground, often under oak trees, Stellenbosch, Duthie 173 (E. L. Stephens 411) 31381, Duthie 343, 31496 ; Oranjezicht, Bottomley, 24371 ; Papegaaisberg, de Vos ; Stellenbosch, v. d. Byl 2101, 2332 ; Kirstenbosch, J. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 334) ; grounds of Cape Town University, E. L. Stephens 552 ; Oranjezicht, Rennie and E. L. Stephens 168, 417 ; Somerset West, Pillans.

Aseroe rubra Labill.

Bottomley (1918) 526.

on ground Cape Town, Saxton, Kew.

Rather doubtful record.

Clathrella baumii (P. Henn.) Ed. Fischer

Ed. Fischer (1933) 89 (errore Cl. braunii) ; Bottomley (1948) 531.

Clathrus (Clathrella) baumii P. Hennings (1903) 164 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 213.

on sandy soil in light woods, Longo R. nr. Napalanka, Baum 601.

Clathrella pseudocancellata Ed. Fischer

Ed. Fischer (1900) 36 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. XVI : 228 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115; Bottomley (1948) 531.

as Clathrus cancellatus Tourn., Hopkins (1938 a) 114.

on ground, de Wagendrift, Bottomley, 11231 ; Pretoria, Wickens, 10058 ; Salisbury, Eyles 2983, 15527 ; Muckleneuk, Pretoria, Vos, 28777 ; Pretoria North, Anderssen, 33333.

Clathrus cibarius (Tul.) Ed. Fischer

Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 20 ; Lloyd (1906 c) 295–6 ; Nel (1942) 71 ; Bottomley (1943) 528.

Ileodictyon cibarium Tul., Ed. Fischer (1890) 53, (1893) 19, (1900) 31.

on ground, Salisbury, Eyles 4139 and Green (v. d. Byl 2346) ; Beatrice, Eyles 4098 ; on ground under bushes, Table Mt., MacOwan.

Clathrus camerunensis P. Henn.

Lloyd (1918a) 751 ; Bottomley (1948) 530.

without locality, v. d. Byl.

Doubtful record : is possibly C. gracilis.

595

Clathrus gracilis (Berk.) Schlecht.

Lloyd (1909a) 62 ; Bottomley (1948) 529.

in woods and open ground, Kirstenbosch, Levyns (E. L. Stephens 167), R. H. Compton (E. L. Stephens 569) ; slopes of Table Mt., Newlands, Bottomley & Lansdell (E. L. Stephens 80) ; Groote Schuur, J. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 128).

Clathrus sp.

Bottomley (1948) 529.

on soil in exposed positions, Wonderboom, Mogg, 23642 ; on dam wall, Loskop, Blaeser, 31055.

Kalchbrennera corallocephala (Welw. & Curr.) Kalchbr.

Kalchbrenner (1880 a) 21 ; Ed. Fischer (1886) 61, (1933) 96 ; Lloyd (1909 a) 68, 81, 83 ; Marloth (1913) 22 ; Nel (1942) 71 ; Bottomley (1948) 532. Lysurus corallocephalus Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 287.

Kalchbrennera tuckii Berkeley (1876 c) 785, (1876 b) 248 ; Kalchbrenner (1876) 115, (1882 a) 106 ; Fischer (1886) 60, (1890) 18 ; Medley Wood (1898) 18 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : l4.

Kalchbrennera tuckii var. microcephala Pole Evans (1915 b) 159.

after heavy rain, on ground amongst Acacia thickets, Boschberg, MacOwan & Tuck (MacOwan 1225 ; S.A.M. 34318) 22050, Kew ; at foot of Kagaberg, near Bedford, Trollip (S.A.M. 34319) ; Kentani, Pegler 1423, Kew, Pegler 1424, 8848 ; Bedford, Marloth, 26590 ; Grahamstown, Schonland, 8952, 8953 ; in mealie lands, Amabele, v. d. Byl, 8954 ; near Engcobo, amongst decaying leaves after rain, Woolby ; Sydenham, Medley Wood 665, 10388, 13075, 31825, Kew ; Krantzkloof, Medley Wood, 812 ; Bot. Gard., Durban, Medley Wood, Kew ; Knapdaar, Gideon, Joebert, 20842 ; Jacksons Tuin, Mogg,

28730 ; Durban; v. d. Byl 359 ; Bathurst, Hahne, 25367 ; Riversdale, Muir (v. d. Byl 2603) ; Brenton, Knysna, Duthie 79, 31357 ; Barberton, Roland, 32887 ; Umkomaas, V. Bottomley, 11861 ; Umtata, Abernethy, 34148 ; Bellville, Lippert (E. L. Stephens 553) ; Maciene. Moçambique, E. L. Stephens 15 ; George McIntyre (E. L. Stephens 279) ; Pinelands, Cape Town, E. L. Stephens 129 ; nr. Milkboschstrand, Salkeld (S.A.M. 56361).

Linderiella columnata (Bosc.) G. H. Cunn.

Bottomley (1948) 521.

Laternea angolensis Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 286.

Clathrus angolensis (We1w. & Curr.) Fischer (1886) 70, (1893) 33. Colonnaria columnata (Bosc.) Fischer (1933) 85.

on humus covered soil, Catete, Pungo Andongo, Welwitsch 120.

Lysurus gardneri Berk.

Lloyd (1918a) 792, (1917a) L. 67 : 2 ; Bottomley (1948) 524.

Anthurus woodii MacOwan, Kalchbrenner (1880 a) 23, (1882 a) 106 ; Fischer (1886) 80 ; Nel (1942) 71.

Lysurus woodii (MacOwan) Lloyd (1909 a) 40, 81, (1924) 1319, 1327 ; van der Byl (1921 c) 191 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 160 ; Nel (1942) 71.

Lysurus borealis (Burt.) P. Henn., Lloyd (1924) 1319, 1327.

on ground amongst cow dung, around Inanda, Medley Wood 134, 10376, 22036, Kew and Medley Wood 149 ; Hopevale, Morgan, 27741, 28536,

28607 ; Putfontein nr. Benom, v. d. Merwe, 23685 ; Johannesburg, J. B. Wood, 14245 ; de Kuil, Standerton Distr., Roos, 20355 ; Brenton, Knysna, Duthie (E. L. Stephens 54) 31508, Duthie 331, 338 (v. d. Byl 2334, 2369 ; Lloyd Myc. Coll. 24890, 24891, 27631), Duthie & Mason (Duthie 341) ; Grahamstown, Archibald, 33215 ; Ixopo, Hackland.

596

PHALLACEAE

Dictyophora indusiata (Vent. ex Pers.) Desv.

Bottomley (1948) 518.

Dictyophora phalloidea Desv., Ed. Fischer (1886) 32-34, (1893) 30–31 ; Marloth (1913) 30.

Phallus indusiatus Vent. ex Pers., Medley Wood (1905) 5 ; Lloyd (1907) 332. Phallus tunicatus Schlecht., Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 286.

in soil and decaying leaves, Inanda, Haygarth (Medley Wood 667) 11050 ; Kew ; nr. Pinetown, Medley Wood 669, 11050 ; Mbabane, Hendricks, 15047 ; Richmond, Vivyan, 20413 ; Hope Vale, Morgan, 34921 ; Natal, without locality, Weintroub, 34920 ; Maritzburg, Fuller (Rump 457) ; Qudeni Forest, Talbot, 34909 ; Hogsback, E. L. Stephens 426 ; Newlands, Lansdell, 24380, E. L. Stephens, 24379 ; Angola, Welwitsch.

Itajahya galericulata Möller

Bottomley (1948) 513.

amongst grass, Pretoria, Doidge, 18072, Bottomley, 13069, 14238, 32771, 34919, Talbot, 34147.

Mutinus bambusinus (Zoll.) Ed. Fisch.

Lloyd (1922) 1124 ; Bottomley (1948) 513.

in decaying debris, Brenton, Knysna, Duthie 291, 31461 ; Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie, 31504 ; Brandfort, Schonken (Duthie 295) 31466.

Mutinus curtisii (Berk.) Ed. Fischer

Bottomley (1948) 511.

on the ground, Rondebosch, Losely, 25461 ; Rondebosch, J. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 127).

Mutinus simplex Lloyd

Lloyd (1919) 879, fig. 1504, (1920) 960 ; Ed. Fischer (1933) 100 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 160 ; Bottomely (1948) 512.

in bush, Brenton, Knysna, Duthie 215 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 57856, type and 57850) 31403, 31510.

Phallus impudicus Linn. ex Pers.

Hopkins (1938a) 115 ; Nel (1942) 71 ; Bottomley (1948) 515.

on ground, Salisbury, C. H. Green (Eyles 4140 ; v. d. Byl 2345), Hopkins (Rh. 377 ; v. d. Byl 2500) ; Stellenbosch, v. d. Byl 2334.

Phallus rubicundus (Bosc.) Fr.

Lloyd (1909a) 83, (1922) 1124; Bottomley (1948) 516.

Phallus aurantiacus Mont., Fischer (1933) 103.

Ithyphallus aurantiacus (Mont.) Fischer, Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 9.

Phallus aurantiacus var. gracilis Fischer (1893) 37.

Phallus gracilis (Fischer) Lloyd, Stevenson & Cash (1936) 161.

Phallus rugulosus (Fischer) Lloyd (1920) 960 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 162.

Kupsura sphaerocephala Lloyd (1921) 303, 1319 ; Verwoerd (1928 a) 225 ; Fischer (1933) 119 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 183.

as Phallus companulatus Berk., Kalchbrenner (1882) 106 ; Bottomley (1948) 518.

Ithyphallus campanulatus (Berk.) Schlecht., Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 11.

on the ground, Boschberg, Tuck & MacOwan (MacOwan 1225, 1286) ; Inanda, Medley Wood 699, 11051, Kew & Berlin ; Sydenham, Holwell, Kew ; Pretoria, Bottomley,

597

12516, 12809, 14237, 20369, 23156, Fouché, 14643, Kraan, 17001, Pole Evans, 9041, 18079 ; Wonderboom, King, 10047 ; Meyerton, Forster, 20373; Maritzburg, T. R. Sim 11322 ; Johannesburg, Burtt Davy, 11011 ; Brenton, Knysna, Duthie 216 (E. L. Stephens 56, 413, Lloyd Myc. Coll. 57851) ; Orange Free State, Olivier (E. L. Stephens 490) 34495 ; Knysna, Duthie 208 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 50084) ; Brandfort, Schonken (Duthie 299) ; without locality, Duthie (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 24893) ; Rondebosch, Crawford (E. L. Stephens 555, 556).

4.3. Sclerodermales

SCLERODERMATACEAE

Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch

Bottomley (1948) 543.

Polysaccum crassipes DC., Lloyd (1916 d) L. 63 : 4, (1917 a) L. 66 : 3 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 146 ; van der Byl (1918 a) 209, (1922 d) 287, (1926 c) 289 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 16 ; Smith & Pope (1934) 95 ; Wakefield (1936) 52 ; Nel (1942) 69.

under Eucalyptus spp., on roots of tree and on ground, Deepwalls, J. Phillips (v. d. Byl 2325) 18040 ; Klapmuts, André, 24842 ; Stellenbosch, v. d. Byl (Stell. 157) ; Newlands, Duthie 123, 31358 ; Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith, Kew ; Elgin, E. L. Stephens 419 ; Somerset West, Garside (E. L. Stephens 508) ; Trappe's Valley, Dyer, 25495 ; Buccleuch, J. M. Sim, 9792 ; Maritzburg, Rump (v. d. Byl 2623) ; Donnybrook, Morgan, 28950 nr. Solheim M. S., Eshowe, Hoeg 170 ; Pretoria-Johannesburg road, Vos, 20627, Mogg, 30781 ; Pretoria, Weeber, 959, 1886, Pole Evans, 1560, Mogg, 23638, 30781 ; Meintjies Kop, Gower, 17093 ; Fountains Valley, Sellschop, 8958 ; near Pretoria, v. d. Byl 1965 ; Potchefstroom, Radloff (v. d. Byl 2092) ; Tzaneen, v. d. Byl 1474 ; Lobatsi, Wallace, 17094 ; Transvaal, without locality, Kretzschmar, 11815.

Scleroderma aurantium Pers.

Lloyd (1915a) L. 56 : 2 ; Hopkins (1938a) 115 ; Bottomley (1948) 539.

Scleroderma vulgare Hornem. ex Fr., Berkeley (1876 a) 175 ; Cooke (1879 b) 70 ; Massee (1889 b) 49 ; Medley Wood (1898) 18 ; Lloyd (1920) 1073 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 18, (1931 a) 300 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161; Nel (1942) 70.

on ground, Cape, Eaton ; Natal, Medley Wood 374, 369, 10705, Kew ; Kloof, Bonfa, 33571 ; Nottingham Road, v. d. Byl 557, 31805 ; Cape, MacOwan 1454, Kew ; Bloemfontein, Verwoerd ; Salisbury, Eyles 4091 (v. d. Byl 2351).

Scleroderma bovista Fr.

Cooke (1879 b) 70 ; Massee (1889 b) 51 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 40 ; Bottomley (1948) 540.

on ground, Inanda, Medley Wood 369, 10703, 11210 ; Salisbury (Rh. 4277). Medley Wood's specimen is immature.

Scleroderma capensis Lloyd

Lloyd (1924) 1305 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 192 ; Bottomley (1948) 540.

on ground, Stellenbosch, Duthie 327 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 24894) 31489, Type.

Scleroderma cepa Pers.

Lloyd (1908 b) L. 23, (1911 b) L. 38 : 3, (1914) L. 53 : 3, 13, (1916 d) L. 63 : 4, (1917 a) L. 66 : 3, 12, L. 67 : 2, 5, (1920) 952, 960, 1010, 1073, (1923) 1186, 1189, 1263 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 287, (1925 b) 195 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 16 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Nel (1942) 70 ; Bottomley (1948) 536.

598

on ground, under Populus spp., Fountains Valley, Lansdell & Bottomley, 28587 ; Parkes, 21095, Reinecke, 21215 ; Wonderboom, Doidge & Bottomley, 28725, King, 10056, Doidge, 23168 ; Mazelspoort, Talbot, 35402 ; under Pinus sp., Meintjies Kop, Bottomley, 14515, 20389, Bosman, 25436 ; under Salix spp., Pyramids, Hean, 30999 ; Garstfontein, Pienaar, 1349, 1338 ; under Eucalyptus spp., Pretoria, Reinecke, 23141; under Quercus spp., Belvidere. Knysna, Duthie, 31388 ; attached to the roots of Quercus seedling, Johannesburg, 28585 ; under hedge, Riviera, Schaefer, 35401 ; situation not known, Riviera, Kresfelder, 9774, 9794 ; Rietfontein, Venter, 14493 ; Pretoria, Doidge, 11810 ; Johannesburg, Bottomley, 8771 ; East Rand, Marquardt, 14485 ; Maritzhurg, Pole Evans, 1342, 1343, 1347, 1355, 1358 ; Empangeni North, v. d. Byl, 31886 ; Mamathes, Hean, 33495 ; Stellenbosch, Duthie 274 (v. d. Byl 1967) 31447, de Vos, 31517 ; Stellenbosch Flats, Duthie, 31469 ; Ida's Valley, Duthie, 35407 ; Knysna, Duthie, 31401, 35403, Duthie 111. 31354, Toise River, Pienaar, 2276 ; Kirstenbosch, Compton, 24835, Putterill, 14835, E. L. Stephens 431, 468, 35514, 35440, Middlemost, (E. L. Stephens 467) 35515, E. L. Stephens 477, 35517 ; Rondebosch, E. L. Stephens 154, 35512 ; Stikland, J. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 112) 35511 ; without locality, E. L. Stephens 470, 35516 ; University grounds, Rosebank, E. L. Stephens 78, 79, 524, 559; Brackenfel Hill, J. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 118) ; Aliwal North road, Dyer, 35518 ; Zululand, v. d. Byl 556 ; Natal, v. d. Byl 288 ; Nottingham Road, v. d. Byl 337.

Scleroderma flavidum Ell. & Everh.

Lloyd (1913 c) L. 47 : 3, (1920) 960, (1922) 1160 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 287;

Verwoerd (1925a) 17, (1931a) 300 ; Nel (1942) 70 ; Bottomley (1948) 538. Seleroderma rhodesica Verwoerd (1926 a) 292, 294 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115. Sclerogaster rhodesica Nel (1942) 67, erronee S. rhoderica.

on ground, often under trees, Potchefstroom, M. Gunn, 30513, Sellschop, 28516, Rudloff (v. d. Byl 2093) ; Meintjies Kop, Bottomley, 20414, 20583 ; Rietvlei, Pretoria, Bottornley, 35399 ; Magaliesberg Mts., Dobie, 23380 ; Riviera, Kresfelder, 9773 ; Mooibank, Potchefstroom, Lawrence, 24885 ; Fountains Valley, Bottomley, 20466 ; Pietersburg, Pole Evans, 25425; Parys, Doidge, 28601 ; Stellenbosch, de Vos, Verwoerd (Stell. 9 ; v. d. Byl 1966) ; Kirstenbosch, Lansdell, 24824, Bolus (v. d. Byl 1668) ; without locality, E. L. Stephens 223, 34530 ; on banks of Umsindusi R., Maritzburg, Pole Evans, 25424 ; Bloemfontein, Verwoerd ; amongst grass, Salisbury, Eyles 4133 (v. d. Byl 2342 ; Rh. 4030) .

Scleroderma geaster Fr.

Lloyd (1917a) L. 66 : 3 ; Bottomley (1948) 536.

on ground, without locality, Duthie.

Scleroderma laeve Lloyd

Lloyd (1916 d) L. 63 : 4, 11 ; Verwoerd (1925a) 41 ; Bottomley (1948) 541.

on ground, Stellenbosch, Duthie 118.

fide Lloyd, a smooth form of S. verrucosum (Bull. ex Pers.) Pers.

Scleroderma lejospermum (Mont.) de Toni

Verwoerd (1925 a) 40 ; Bottomley (1948) 541.

Mycenastrum lejospermum Montagne (1847) 175.

Sterrebeckia lejosperma (Mont.) Fries (1848) 33.

Witpoortberg, Drège 9466.

599

Scleroderma nitidum Berk.

Hopkins (1938 a) 115.

on ground, Salisbury, Eyles 7222, Kew.

Scleroderma pyramidatum Kalchbr.

Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 109 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 136 ; Medley Wood (1898) 18; Verwoerd (1925 a) 40 ; Bottomley (1948) 541.

on ground, Natal, Medley Wood 375, 10704.

Fide Bottomley, l.c., this is not a Scleroderma, but a gill fungus, possibly Montagnites sp.

Scleroderma stellenbossiensis Verw.

Verwoerd (1926a) 292 ; Nel (1942) 70 ; Bottomley (1948) 542.

on damp, clayey ground, Stellenbosch, Verwoerd (Stell. 274, 300 ; v. d. Byl 2223) Type.

Scleroderma tenerum Berk. & Curt.

Lloyd (1911) L. 38 : 3, (1914) L. 53 : 3, (1916 d) L. 63 : 4, (1917 a) L. 67 : 5, (1920) 952, 1073 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 287, (1925 b) 196 ; Verwoerd

(1925 a) 18 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Nel (1942) 70 ; Bottomley (1948) 542.

in humus, along edge of spring, Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie 141 ; inside decayed tree, Stellenbosch, Duthie 119 ; Zululand, v. d. Byl 619.

Scleroderma verrucosum (Bull. ex Pers.) Pers.

Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 109 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 136 ; Massee (1889 b)

50 ; Lloyd (1913 c) L. 47 : 3, (1916 d) L. 63 : 4, (1920) 1010 ; Verwoerd

(1925 a) 18 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Hopkins

(1938 a) 115 ; Bottomley (1948) 537.

on ground, near Somerset East, MacOwan 1424 ; Cape Town, MacOwan,

Kew ; under oak, Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie 212, 278, 31369, 31451 ; Stellenbosch, Duthie 13, 31300, v. d. Byl 1185 ; Salisbury, Eyles 4141 ; Hogsback, N. J. G. Smith, Kew ; Mamathes, Hean, 33496 ; under poplars, Garstfontein, Doidge, 30702 ; Fountains, Doidge, 35406, Schaefer, 35404 ; Maritzburg, Pole Evans, 1345, Kew, J. M. Sim, 8816; Kirstenbosch, E. L. Stephens 107.

ARACHNIACEAE

Arachnion alborosella Verw.

Verwoerd (1926 a) 291, 293, (1931 a) 300 ; Bottomley (1948) 546.

on veld, Brandfort,Verwoerd (Stell. 234 ; v. d. Byl 2221).

Arachnion album Schw.

Lloyd (1906 a) 253, (1913 c) L. 47 : 3, (1914) L. 53 : 13, 15, (1915 a) L. 60 : 3, (1917 c) 644, (1917 a) L. 66 : 3, (1920) 960, 961 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 287,

(1925 b) 193 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Nel (1942) 107 ; Bottomley (1948) 546.

Scoleiocarpus tener Berkeley (1843 b) 520 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 151 ; Lloyd (1922) 1134 ; Fischer (1933) 56.

on ground, Uitenhage, Zeyher 106, Stellenbosch Flats, Duthie 21, 31303 ; Stellenbosch, Verwoerd (Stell. 172 ; v. d. Byl 1968) ; Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie 68, 70, 217, 240, 31330, 31405, 31423 ; Forest Hall, Knysna, Duthie 219, 220, 222, 31407, 31408, 31410 ; Victoria Road, Stellenbosch, Duthie 31506, 31507 ; Mowbray, Levyns (v. d. Byl 2109) ; Rietvlei, Pretoria, Bottomley, 35432 ; locality unknown, E. L. Stephens 320, 398; Katberg, E. L. Stephens 429.

600

Arachnion firmoderma Verw.

Verwoerd (1926 a) 290, 293, (1931 a) 300 ; Bottomley (1948) 547.

in old cattle runs, Brandfort, Verwoerd (Stell. 233 ; v. d. Byl 2220) Type.

Arachnion giganteum Lloyd

Lloyd (1917 a) L. 65 : 3, (1917 c) 645, (1920) 1073 ; Verwoerd (1925 a)

19 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 164; Fischer (1933) 56 ; Bottomley (1948) 546.

on ground, Clanwilliam, Duthie 166 a (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 22753) Type ;

Stellenbosch, Duthie 255 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 50745) ; Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie 254.

Arachnion scleroderma Lloyd

Lloyd (1915 a) L. 60 : 3, (1915 b) 538, (1917 c) 644, (1920) 960, 992, (1922) 1134 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 287 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 20 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. XXIII : 597 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 164 ; Nel (1942) 107 ; Bottomley (1948) 547.

on ground, Stellenbosch Flats, Duthie 41, 70, 232 (v. d. Byl 1969 ; Lloyd Myc. Coll. 22677, 22678, 24892) 31313, 31501 ; Stellenbosch, Verwoerd (Stell. 183) ; appearing in some abundance on lower and damper parts of Flats, Duthie.

4.4. Lycoperdales

LYCOPERDACEAE

LYCOPERDEAE

Bovista citrina (Berk. & Br.) Bottomley

Bottomley (1948) 580.

on ground, Salisbury, Eyles 7219, 7221, Kew.

Bovista oblongispora (Lloyd) Bottomley

Bottomley (1948) 580.

Bovistella oblongispora Lloyd (1916 d) L. 63 : 4, (1917 c) 632; Verwoerd (1925 a) 29; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 168.

on ground, Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie 99 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 30756) Type.

Bovista umbrina Bottomley

Bottomley (1948) 580.

in forest, Woodbush, Roberts, 5659, Type.

Broomeia congregata Berk.

Berkeley (1844) 193 ; von Thuemen (1875) 424 ; MacOwan (1877) 123, (1883) 373 ; Cooke (1879) 70 ; Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 108 ; Murray (1883) 311 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 94 ; Lloyd (1904 a) 193, (1907) 318, (1920) 917, (1924) 1276 ; Pole Evans & Bottomley (1919) 189 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 34 ; Fischer (1933) 68 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115 ; Bottomley (1948) 583.

usually at the foot of Acacia karroo, Albany Distr., Backhouse (Type) ; Damaraland, Eën, Kew and Brit. Mus. ; nr. Klein Vis Rivier, MacOwan, Kew ; Boschberg, MacOwan (S.A.M. 35073) ; Inanda, Medley Wood 426, Kew ; Empangeni, Curson, 17275 ; Port Elizabeth (ex Herb. Hooker) Kew ; South-west Africa, Dinter ; Pretoria, Bischoff, 8758, Janse, 13023 ; Fountains Valley, Pole Evans, 8760 ; Meintjies Kop, Goldblatt, 20441; Pretoria, Louwrens, 28256, Bottomley, 28655; Rietvlei, Pretoria Distr., Acocks , 30754; Rust der Winter, Pole Evans, 28792; Kroonstad, Pont, 25341; Glen, Sellschop, 28272 ; Potchefstroom, Goossens, 27807 ; Kimberley, Mowbray, 14863; Maritzburg,

601

T. R. Sim, 11855 ; Mqanduli, Pegler 643, 11801 Umtata, Pegler (E. L. Stephens 454) ; without locality, E. L. Stephens 174 ; Mangwendi, Fleming (Eyles 2763) 14245 ; Rhodesia, Eyles (v. d. Byl 1876).

Broomeia ellipsospora v. Höhn.

von Höhnel (1905) 99 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. XXI : 481 ; Lloyd (1909 b) 436, (1920) 1918, 1048 ; Pole Evans & Bottomley (1919) 189 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 34 ; Nel (1942) 68 ; Bottomley (1948) 584.

Diplocystis junodii Pole Evans & Bottomley (1919) 189 ; Fischer (1933) 68 ; N. J. G. Smith (1935) 258.

" in sabulosis in Africa australi ", Holub ; South-west Africa, v. d. Byl 1925, 2502, and Marloth, 26617 ; Potgietersrust, de Villiers, 31287 ; on ground, Rikatli, Junod, 12169, 23194, Kew ; near Marienthall, Smithers (S.A.M. 52051) ; Silikats Nek, Schweickerdt, 26700 ; Lourenço Marques, Junod, 11012, Borlc, 14109 ; Empangeni, Curson, 17275; Brandberg Mts., S.W.A., N. J. G. Smith, 27510 ; between Dealesville and Herzogville, V. C. Green. 34355 ; Middelburg, Transvaal, Dyer, 30503 ; Upington, Wilman (E. L. Stephens

567) ; near Kimberley, Powers (E. L. Stephens 403) ;

Calvatia caelata (Bull.) Morg.

Bottomley (1948) 572.

Calvatia fontanesii (Dur. & Mont.) Lloyd (1920) 1011) ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 42.

on ground, Groenkloof, E. P. Phillips, 12451.

Calvatia candida (Rostk.) Hollós.

Bottomley (1948) 575.

Calvatia olivacea (Cooke & Mass.) Lloyd (1911 b) L. 38 : 3 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 172.

Lycoperdon retis Lloyd (1922) 1160, 1176 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 188.

on ground, under Eucalyptus trees, Maritzburg, Pole Evans (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 34259) 1342, Kew ; without locality, Duthie (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 51765) ; in bush, Bulwer, Rump 467, 34523; Maritzburg, J. M. Sim, 10052, Rump 710 ; Rietfontein, Pretoria, Venter, 14638.

Calvatia gigantea (Batsch ex Pers.) Lloyd

Bottomley (1948) 573.

Lycoperdon bovista Linn., Thunberg (1800) 182, (1823) 756.

in hills outside Cape Town, Thunberg.

Calvatia incerta Bottomley

Bottomley (1948) 576.

on grassy slopes after continuous rain, Benoni, Bailey, 27339, type.

Calvatia lepidophora (Ellis) Lloyd

Bottomley (1948) 574.

on sandy soil, Garstfontein, Pienaar 1468 ; Meintjes Kop. Pole Evans, 13795 ; Rietfontein, Pretoria., Venter, 14638 ; Matatiele, Gideon, Joubert, 28534.

Calvatia lilacina (Mont. et Berk.) P. Henn.

Lloyd (1914) L. 53 : 13, (1916 d) L. 63 : 4, (1917 a) L. 65 : 3, L. 66 : 12, 13, (1920) 952, (1922) 460, (1923) 1186 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 33 ; Cunningham (1944) 157 ; Bottomley (1948) 572.

602

Lycoperdon cyathiforme Bosc., Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 108 ; Massee (1887) 706 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 41.

Lycoperdon lilacinum (Mont. & Berk.) Mass., Cheesman (1909) 409.

Bovista lilacina Mont. & Berk., Kalchbrenner & Cooke (1881) 26 ; Kalchbrenner (1882a) 108.

on ground, near Boschherg, MacOwan 1004, 1009 ; Natal, Medley Wood 408, 11147, Kew ; Maclear, Pienaar, 2134 ; Matatiele, Gideon Joubert, 26852 ; Stellenbosch, Duthie 40, 31312 ; Stellenbosch Flats, Duthie 12, 121, 188 (v. d. Byl 816) ; Woodbourne, Knysna, Duthie 46, 116 ; Kirstenbosch, L. Bolus (v. d. Byl 1669) and E. L. Stephens 404 ; Stikland, J. Acocks ; Groote Schuur, E. L. Stephens 131; Llandudno, E. L. Stephens, 34573 ; Stella Bush, Moonsamy, 31769, v. d. Byl 543, 31901 ; Durban, v. d. Byl 390, 391, 543 ; Donnybrook, Doidge, 34538 ; Maputa Exped., Breijer, 8361 ; Bloemfontein, Potts, 13016 ; Pretoria, Wickens, 20372, Pienaar, 1939, Mogg, 23640 ; Maritzburg, J. M. Sim, 8796 ; Riviera, Pretoria, Kresfelder, 9795 ; Roseville, Pretoria ; edge of Rain Forest, Victoria Falls, Cheesman.

Calvatia macrogemmae Lloyd.

Lloyd (1922) 1122, (1923) 1169 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 33 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 172 ; Nel (1942) 68 ; Bottomley (1948) 577.

on ground amongst grass, Natal, Thode (v. d. Byl 505) ; without locality, v. d. Byl 80 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 22585) Type.

Calvatia pachyderma (Peck) Morgan

Bottomley (1948) 577.

in sandy soil, Cape Province, E. L. Stephens. 34143.

Calvatia saccata (Vahl ex Fr.) Morgan

Bottomley (1948) 574.

Lycoperdon saccatum Vahl, Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 108 ; Verwoerd (1925 a)

41 ; Massee (1887) 708, (1889 b) 69 ; Sacc., Syll. Fung. VII : 128.

in wooded country, near Somerset East, MacOwan.

Disciseda anomala (Cooke & Mass.) G. H. Cunn.

Bottomley (1948) 569.

Catastoma anomalum (Cooke & Mass.) Lloyd (1916 c) 610 ; van der By1 (1921 g) 346 ;Verwoerd (1926 b) 27 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 173 ; Nel (1942) 68.

on ground, without locality, Duthie ; Phoenix, v. d. Byl 525 ; Durban, v. d. Byl 237 ; Mamathes, Hean, 3 : 145.

Disciseda candida (Schw.) Lloyd

Bottomley (1948) 570.

Catastoma duthiei Lloyd (1919) 891; Verwoerd (1925 a) 28 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 174.

Catastoma circumscissum (Berk. & Curt.) Morgan in Herb. Kew.

on ground, Forest Hall, Knysna, Duthie 224 (Stell. 225 ; Lloyd Myc. Coll. 52391) 31411 ; Queenstown, Pope (det. N. J. C. Smith) Kew ; under Acacia caffra, Commando Nek, Pole Evans, 8381 ; Phoenix, Hardenberg, 31862 ; without locality, Duthie, 31514.

603

Disciseda castanea (Lév.) Bottomley

Bottomley (1948) 568.

Bovista castanea Léveillé (1846) 162 ; Montagne (1847) 176 ; Massee (1888) 135; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 103 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 42.

Catastoma castaneum (Lév.) Lloyd (1906 c) 291.

between Hex River Mts. and the Bokkeveld, Drège 9455a [Herb. Mus. Paris and Herb. Delessert, Geneva]; under Eucalyptus globulus, Maritzburg, T. R. Sim, 8796.

Disciseda cervina (Berk.) Hollós

Hollós (1903 b) (22) ; Bottomley (1948) 570.

Bovista cervina Berkeley (1842) 447 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 100 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 42.

Catastoma magnum Lloyd (1917 c) 631, (1920) 1010, (1922) 1124 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 27 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 175 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 286.

on ground near Cape of Good Hope ; Stellenbosch Flats, Duthie 282 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 52392) ; under Acacia caffra, Commando Nek, Pole Evans (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 52393) 8381 ; Schweizer Reinecke, D. v. H. 34531 ; Marienthall, Marloth, 26613.

Disciseda hypogaea (Cke. & Mass.) G. H. Cunn.

Bottomley (1948) 568.

in sandy soil, eastern slopes of Bokkeveld, E. L. Stephens 562.

Disciseda juglandiformis (Berk.) Hollós

Hollós (1903) 22 ; Bottomley (1948) 567.

Bovista juglandiformis Berk. in Massee (1888) 130.

Catastoma juglandiformis (Berk.) Lloyd (1916 d) L. 63 : 4 ; Verwoerd, (1925 a) 42 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 175.

on the ground, South Africa (Type in Herb. Berkeley, no. 4584) Kew ; Brenton, Knysna, Duthie 153 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 52388).

Diseiseda pedicellata (Morgan) Hollós

Cunningham (1944) 137 ; Bottomley (1948) 567.

Catastoma pedicellatum Morgan, Lloyd (1920) 960, 961 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 27 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; Nel (1942) 68.

amongst grass, Knysna, Duthie 207 (v. d. Byl 1426, ex Herb. C. G. Lloyd) ; Maputa Exped., Breijer, 8355.

Disciseda verrucosa G. H. Cunn.

Bottomley (1948) 568.

on ground, Drostdy grounds, Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith 221, 27511.

Disciseda zeyheri (Berk.) Hollós

Hollós (1903) 22 ; Bottomley (1948) 569.

Bovista zeyheri Berk., Massee (1888) 130.

Catastoma zeyheri (Berk.) Lloyd (1917 a) L. 65 : 3, 8, (1922) 1162 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 27 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; Nel (1942) 68.

on the ground, South Africa (Type in Herb. Berkeley, no. 4588) Kew ; Mossel Bay, v. d. Byl 731; without locality, (?Knysna) Duthie.

604

Lanopila capensis Lloyd

Lloyd (1922) 1160, (1923) 1177 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 25 ; Fischer (1933)

64 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 183 ; Bottomley (1948) 579.

on ground, Papegaaisberg, Duthie 304 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 7567) 31472, Type.

Lanopila radloffiana Verw.

Verwoerd (1925 a) 25 ; Bottomley (1948) 578.

on ground, Winburg, Radloff (v. d. Byl 1439) Type.

Lanopila wahlbergii Fr.

Fries (1848) 31 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 95 ; Lloyd (1917 a) L. 66 : 2, (1920) 960, (1923) 1177 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 25 ; van der Byl (1921 g) 347 ; Fischer (1933) 64 ; Nel (1942) 107 ; Bottomley (1948) 578.

on ground, Durban, Wahlberg, Type, v. d. Byl 314, Verwoerd (Stell. 120), Bottomley, 12254 ; Knysna, Duthie 241 ; nr. Mafeking, Pole Evans 27500 ; Vaal River, nr. Kimberley, H. H. W. Pearson.

Lycoperdon asperrimum Welw. & Curr.

Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 289 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 125 ; Bottomley (1948) 562 .

on sand dunes, on banks of Lagao de Giraul, Mossamedes, Welwitsch 142 ; near Maiomba, Mossamedes, Welwitsch 144.

Lycoperdon asperum (Lév.) de Toni

Cunningham (1944) 154 ; Bottomley (1948) 561.

Bovistella aspera (Lév.) Lloyd (1915 a) L. 56 : 2, 5, L. 60 : 3, (1922) 1160 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 29 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196.

on ground, Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie 310, 312, 31477, 31479, Duthie 67 (Stell. 170) ; Johannesburg. Bottomley, 8772 ; Transvaal, v. d. Byl.

Lycoperdon bicolor Welw. & Curr.

Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 290 ; Lorrain Smith (1901) 465 ; Bottomley (1948) 562.

in very damp woody pastures, between Lopollo and Empalanea, Huila, Welwitsch 146.

Lycoperdon caespitosum We1w. & Curr.

Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 289 ; Massee (1887) 725 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung.

VII : 120 ; Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 109 ; Lorrain Smith (1901) 465 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 41 ; Bottomley (1948) 556.

in open grassy places, Somerset East, MacOwan 1005, 22058, Kew ; gregarious in upland, poor meadows, Morro de Lopollo, Welwitsch 145.

Lycoperdon caffrorum Kalchbr. & Cooke

Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 109 ; Massee (1887) 707 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 129, 477 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 41 ; Bottomley (1948) 556.

on ground, Somerset East, MacOwan 1424, 22059, Type.

Lycoperdon capensis Cooke & Massee

Massee (1887) 714 , not Fries ; Fischer (1889) 7 ; Hennings (1892) 360 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 481 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 42 ; Bottomley (1948) 563 as L. capense.

on ground, Ombale, Ondongo, South-West Africa, Schinz.

605

" A later homonym of L. capense Fr., should be renamed if a good species ", E. M. Wakefield.

Lycoperdon capense Fr.

Fries (1848) 42 ; Bottomley (1948) 563.

on ground, Uitenhage, Zeyher No. 106.

Lycoperdon curreyi Mass.

Massee (1887) 706 ; Bottomley (1948) 563.

Lycoperdon welwitschii de Toni, not L. welwitschii Mass., Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII: 127 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 32.

Lycoperdon radicatum Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 289 ; Kalchbrenner

(1882 a) 108, (not Dur. & Mont.).

Lycoperdon atroviolaceum Kalchbr. (nom. nud.) in Herb. S.A.M.

on ground, Boschberg, MacOwan 1004, Type (S.A.M. 35050) 22062, Kew ; MacOwan 1009, 22061.

Lycoperdon djurense P. Henn.

Hennings (1901) (100) ; Lloyd (1917 a) L. 66 : 16, (1920) 1010, (1922) 1124, 1160 ; van der Byl (1921 g) 347 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 32 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115 ; Nel (1942) 69 ; Bottomley (1948) 552.

as Lycoperdon endotephrum Pat. in Lloyd (1912 b) L. 39 : 3.

on ground, often among short grass, Pretoria, Bottomley, 11865, 34589 ; Meintjies Kop, Bottomley, 14648 ; Johannesburg, Barraclough, 27385 ; Rietfontein, Pretoria, Venter, 14487 ; Schroeders, v. d. Byl 542, 31761 ; Salisbury, Eyles 2524, 14855 ; Wonderboom, King, 10050 ; Rietvlei, Pretoria, J. Acocks, 34574, Bottomley, 34577 ; Garstfontein, Bottomley, 35426 ; Stellenbosch, Eyles 6667 (Rh. 3906).

Lycoperdon duthiei Bottomley

Bottomley (1948) 555.

on ground, Kirstenhosch, Duthie 44 pr. p., 35338, Type, Kew.

Lycoperdon flavum Mass.

Massee (1887) 721 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 486 ; Bottomley (1948) 557.

? as Lycoperdon gemmatum Batsch, Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 109.

on ground, Cape, MacOwan 1005 b, Kew ; Pretoria, Scott, 34580, Bottomley, 35528 ; collected around Pretoria on many occasions.

Lycoperdon gardneri Berk.

Massee (1887) 716 ; Bottomley (1948) 564.

on ground in shady woods, South Africa.

Lycoperdon glabellum Peck

Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 109 ; Massee (1887) 707 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 124, 477 ; Bottomley (1948) 564.

on ground, Somerset East, MacOwan 133 ; Baziya, Baur.

Lycoperdon gunnii Berk.

Bottomley (1948) 561.

on ground, Wellington, Bottomley, 1547 ; Stellenbosch Flats, Duthie 302, 31470 ; Bloemfontein, Potts, 13003 ; Salisbury, Eyles 2523, 14861.

606

Lycoperdon hyemale (Bull. ex Pers.) Vitt.

Cunningham (1944) 137 ; Bottomley (1948) 551.

Lycoperdon natalense Cooke & Mass., Massee (1887) 709 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 478 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 41.

Lycoperdon pratense Pers., Lloyd (1905) L. 7, (1911 b) L. 31 : 2, (1916 d) L. 63 : 4 ; Marloth (1913) 22 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 286 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 31, (1931 a) 300 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115 ; Nel (1942) 69.

Lycoperdon curtisii Berk., Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 109 ; Massee (1887) 712 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 114, 480 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 41.

Lycoperdon eylesii Verwoerd (1926 a) 262, 294 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115 ; Nel (1942) 69.

Lycoperdon multiseptum Lloyd (1914) L. 53 : 3, 9 (1920) 1073 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 42 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 187.

as Lycoperdon gemmatum Batsch, von Thuemen (1876 b) 363.

on ground, Inanda, Medley Wood 185, 358, 361, Kew ; in fields and grassy spaces, Boschberg, MacOwan 1003 (Thuem. Myc. Univ. 1611 ; S.A.M. 35051) 22060, Kew ; slopes of Katberg, E. L. Stephens 428 ; Knysna, Duthie 38, 256 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 53127, 51764) and Duthie (v. d. Byl 2034) ; Brenton, Knysna, Duthie, 31347 ; Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie, 31348 ; Rondebosch, E. L. Stephens 450, 34534 ; Kirstenbosch, Garabedian (S.A.M. 45896) ; Cape, without locality, Adamson (E. L. Stephens 447) 34533 ; Pretoria, Bottomley, 11864, 11866, 33462, 33772, 35530, Lounsbury, 11867, Doidge, 958, 31583 ; Groenkloof, Pole Evans, 8780, Sellschop, 9775, Landsdell, 18144; Kilnerton, Pole Evans, 2242 ; Garstfontein, Pienaar, 1876, 18089 ; Fairy Glen, Pretoria, Bottomley, 23169 ; Johannesburg, Doidge, 27804; Brandfort, Verwoerd, 34534 ; Orange Free State, without locality, Olivier, 34557 ; van Reenen, Franks, 5666 ; Maritzburg, Rump 389, 30789 ; Mbabane, Stewart, 1557 ; Salisbury, Eyles 4089 (v. d. Byl 2223) Beatrice, Eyles 4090 (Rh. 3823).

Lycoperdon laetum Berk.

Berkeley (1843) 419 ; Massee (1887) 718 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII: 483 ; Bottomley (1948) 565.

on ground, Uitenhage, Zeyher 103.

Lycoperdon natalense Fr.

Fries (1848) 30, ? nom. nud. ; Bottomley (1948) 565.

Natal, Wahlberg.

Lycoperdon perlatum Pers.

Bottomley (1948) 554.

Lycoperdon gemmatum Batsch, Berkeley (1843 b) 519 ; Massee (1889 b) 70 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 108 ; Lloyd (1924) 1294 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 32.

on ground or decayed vegetable matter, Uitenhage, Zeyher 102 ; Kirstenbosch, Garabedian (S.A.M. 45994), Middlemost (E. L. Stephens 517) ; The Wilderness, Doidge, 17794 ; Deepwalls, J. Phillips (v. d. Byl 2221) 18147.

Lycoperdon polymorphum Vitt.

Lloyd (1920) 1010 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 30 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115 ; Nel (1942) 69 ; Bottomley (1948) 557.

Lycoperdon furfuraceum Schaeff. ex de Toni, Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 101, 445. Lycoperdon cepaeforme (Bull.) Mass., Lloyd (1911 b) L. 38 : 3, (1922) 1160 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 31.

as Lycoperdon oblongisporum Berk. & Curt., Lloyd (1920) 960 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 32 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196.

607

in grassy places or under trees, near Somerset East, MacOwan ; Papegaaisberg, Duthie 303 (v. d. Byl 2035) 31471 ; Forest Hall, Knysna, Duthie 211, 31400; Garstfontein, Bottomley, 30704, Pienaar, 1355; Roseville, Pretoria, Pienaar, 1939 ; Rietvlei, Pretoria, Bottomley, 34590 ; Sunnyside, Pretoria, Pole Evans, 6683 ; Pretoria, King, 12339, Reinecke, 23138 ; Wonderboom, King, 10051 ; Meintjes Kop, Bottomley, 20390 ; Vereeniging, Brandmüller, 20635 ; Fountains Valley, Bottomley & Louwrens, 28592 ; Bloemfontein, Potts, 13001, Lennard, 20653 ; Ingogo, Mogg, 13796 ; without locality, ex Herb. Lloyd (v. d. Byl. 1421).

Lycoperdon pusillum Batsch ex Pers.

Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 109 ; Massee (1887) 723 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 31, (1931 a) 300 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115 ; Nel (1942) 69 ; Bottomley (1948) 558.

Bovista pusilla (Fr.) de Toni, Massee (1889 b) 65.

on soil, Somerset East, Tuck (MacOwan 115 b) ; Brandfort, Schonken (Duthie 296) 31465, Verwoerd (v. d. Byl 2082) ; Bloemfontein, Potts, 13002, 13007 ; Pretoria, Reinecke, 23150, Bottomley & Scott, 33773, Bottomley, 35529 ; Potchefstroom, Sellschop 35527 ; Gezina, N. Roberts, 2044 ; Garstfontein, Bottomley, 35427 ; Papegaaisberg, Duthie 318, 31483 ; Salisbury, Eyles 7220 (Rh. 3915) Kew, Hopkins (v. d. Byl 2539) ; Alicedale 12185 ; without locality, v. d. Byl 2082 ; Avondale (Rh. 153).

Lycoperdon qudenii Bottomley

Bottomley (1948) 559.

on humus in forest, Qudeni Forest, Talbot, 34144, Type, Kew.

Lycoperdon rhodesianum Verw.

Verwoerd (1928 b) 237 ; Bottomley (1948) 554.

on ground, Salisbury, Eyles 4223 (v. d. Byl 2412), Type.

Lycoperdon subincarnatum Peck

Bottomley (1948) 553.

on fallen trees or amongst moss on dead wood, Cathkin Peak, Lawrence, 35337.

Lycoperdon umbrinum Pers.

Lloyd (1914) L. 53 : 13 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 31 ; Nel (1942) 69 ; Bottomley (1948) 560.

on ground, Stellenbosch, Duthie 218 ; Kirstenbosch, Duthie 44 (v.d. Byl 2036 ; Stell. 182) 31315.

Mycenastrum corium (Guers. ex DC.) Desv.

Lloyd (1917 a) L. 65 : 3, 7, (1922) 1160 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 26, (1931 a) 300 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Nel (1942) 69 ; Bottomley (1948) 582.

Sterrebeckia geaster Fries (1848) 30.

Mycenastrum phaeotrichum Berkeley (1843 b) 518.

on ground, Durban, Wahlberg ; in forests near Uitenhage, Zeyher 80 ; Brenton, Knysna, Duthie 319, 321 (v. d. Byl 1089) 31484, 31503 ; Huisrivierberge, v. d. Byl 1071 ; Clanwilliam, Duthie 166 ; Burghersdorp, Gideon Joubert, 9687 ; Sevenfontein, nr. Swellendam; Pole Evans, 12178 ; Port Elizabeth. Haslam, 28863 ; near Grahamstown, Hewitt, 24899 ; Wolmaransstad, Nieuwoudt (Stell. 565) ; Buffelspoort, Bottomley, 26638 ; between Heidelberg and Standerton, Murray, 28819 ; near Plat Rivier, Pienaar, 9305 ; Pretoria, Pole Evans, 12899 ; Irene, Pole Evans, 21927 ; Greefswald, on banks of the Limpopo River, Pole Evans, 33244 ; Ermelo, Brink (v. d. Byl 1094) ; Brandfort, Verwoerd (Stell.

224 ; v. d. Byl 2080) ; Stellenbosch, Loseby (E. L. Stephens 84).

608

GEASTREAE

Geastrum ambiguum Mont.

Fischer (1889) 6 ; P. Hennings (1892) 362 ; Cunningham (1944) 174 ; Bottomley (1948) 591.

Geaster drummondii Berk., Lloyd (1902) 12 ; N. J. G. Smith (1935) 276.

Geaster striatulus Kalchbr., Lloyd (1920) 1010 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 21, (1931 a) 300 ; Nel (1942) 69.

Geaster schweinfurthii P. Hennings (1892) 361.

in sand, or in open or shaded ground, Dundee, Doidge, 956 ; under Acacia karroo, Bedford, Gane, 9199 ; on termite hill, Butterworth, Doran (Pegler 2367) 9200 ; nr. Graafwater, Pole Evans, 33182 ; Garstfontein, Pienaar, 1353 ; St. Helena Bay, Smithers (E. L. Stephens 423) 35122 ; Sibangwana, Martley, 35021 ; Stellenbosch, Duthie, 35032 ; nr. Grahamstown, Queenstown, Tarkastad and Alice, N. J. G. Smith 90, 171, Kew ; Port Elizabeth, Archibald ; Stellenbosch, Nel (Stell. 1105, 1139) ; Brandfort, Verwoerd (Stell. 2083) ; Olukonda, Schinz ; ? bank of Aughrabies River, Barnard, (S.A.M. 45945).

Geastrum arenarium Lloyd

Lloyd (1907) 28, (1924) 1294 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 41 ; N. J. G. Smith (1935) 273 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 178 ; Bottomley (1948) 600.

on sandy soil, Tarkastad, West, 27512 ; Grahamstown, 9198 and N. J. G. Smith 173 ; Mauritzfontein nr. Kimberley, J. Acocks, 28637 ; Queenstown, Hall ; Bollellacarpu nr. Kuruman, Rennie ; Fort Hare, Giffen, 27503.

Geastrum bryantii Berk.

Lloyd (1920) 1010 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 23 ; N. J. G. Smith (1935) 274 ; Nel (1942) 68 ; Bottomley (1948) 589.

amongst decayed leaves, Fountains, Bottomley, 21200 ; without locality, (v. d. Byl 1422, ex Herb. Lloyd) ; Pretoria, Martin (N. J. G. Smith 91).

Geastrum campestre Morgan

N. J. G. Smith (1935) 275 ; Cunningham (1944) 165 ; Bottomley (1948) 590.

on ground and in humus, Mooibank, Potchefstroom Distr., Lawrence, 18123, 18124 ; Irene-Delmas road, Pole Evans, 24921 ; Carolina, Young (N. J. G. Smith 179) ; Queenstown, Pope (N. J. G. Smith 7) Kew ; South West Africa. Dinter.

Geastrum dissimile Bottomley

Bottomley (1948) 592.

in humus under trees and bushes, Fountains, Howlett, 12790, Lansdell & Bottomley, 28457, Bottomley, 14515 b Type ; Johannesburg, Bottomley,

35132 ; Fairy Glen, Reinecke, 23165.

Geastrum fimbriatum Fr.

Cooke & Kalchbrenner (1881) 27 ; Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 108 ; Fischer (1889) 7 ; de Toni (1887) 75 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 82 ; P. Hennings (1892) 362 ;

Verwoerd (1926 a) 291 ; Cunningham (1944) 176 ; Bottomley (1948) 597.

on soil amongst dead leaves, Boschberg, Tuck (MacOwan 1124 ; S.A.M. 35059) 21941 ; Olukonda, Amboland, Schinz.

Doubtful record, fide Bottomley l.c.

609

Geastrum floriforme Vitt.

Hollós (1904) 68 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 21, (1931 a) 300 ; N. J. G. Smith (1935) 277 ; Nel (1942) 68 ; Cunningham (1944) 177 ; Bottomley (1948) 602.

Geastrum pazschkeanum P. Hennings (1900 d) (55) ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. XVI : 239.

on ground, Devils Peak, MacOwan (Rabenh. Fung. Eur. 4452) Kew ; Pretoria, Doidge, 957, Pienaar, 1968 ; Krugersdorp, Pretorius, 23625 ; Matatiele, Gideon Joubert, 26577 ; Rapenberg Golf Course, Cape, Pocock (E. L. Stephens 218) 27272 ; Stikland, J. Acocks, 27274 ; Stellenbosch, v. d. Byl 1107 ; Brandfort, Verwoerd (v. d. Byl 2083) ; Elsenburg, 25029 ; Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith 19, 28 ; Stellenbosch, Eyles 6756.

Geastrum fornicatum (Huds.) Fr.

Lloyd (1907) 343, (1910 d) L. 35 : 3 ; Nel (1942) 68 ; Bottomley (1948) 601. Geaster fenestratum (Pers.) Fisch., N. J. G. Smith (1935) 278.

in humus under bushes and trees, Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie 95 (v. d. Byl 1092) 31349, Eyles 6658 (Rh. 3861) Johannesburg, Bottomley, 35132 ; Platrivier, Pienaar, 1966 ; Saltpan nr. Waterpoort, Schweickerdt, 26623 ; Trappes Valley, Cronwright (N. J. G. Smith 9) 12466 ; Tarkastad, West (N. J. G. Smith 33) ; Commadagga (N. J. G. Smith 96) ; Kentani, Pegler 2386, 9419 ; Kimberley, Wilman, 12317 ; under Acacia, Mauritzfontein, J. Acocks, 28636.

Geastrum hieronymi P. Henn.

Lloyd (1923) 1176 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 22 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; N. J. G. Smith (1935) 279 ; Nel (1942) 68 ; Bottomley (1948) 602.

on ground amongst vegetable debris, Brenton, Knysna, Duthie 290 (Stell. 125 ; v. d. Byl 1091) 31460 ; Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith ; Platrivier, Pienaar, 1967 ; Kromrivier, Doidge & Bottomley, 35121.

Geastrum hygrometricum Pers.

Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 109 ; de Toni (1887) 129 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 90; Verwoerd (1926 a) 291 ; Marloth (1913) 21 ; Bottomley (1948) 603.

in manured garden soil, Somerset East, MacOwan & Tuck (MacOwan 1060 ; S.A.M. 35065) 35305 ; under pine trees, Pretoria, Watson, 25435, Bottomley, 20421, 23724.

Geastrum limbatum Fr.

Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 108 ; de Toni (1887) 73 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 81 ; Massee (1889 b) 79 ; Cheesman (1909) 409 ; Lloyd (1924) 1294 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 41 ; Bottomley (1948) 594.

Geastrum limbatum var. ellipsostoma N. J. G. Smith (1935) 269.

under trees and bushes, Somerset East, MacOwan 1236 ; Palm Kloof, Victoria Falls, Cheesman ; under Acacia, Fountains Valley, Bottomley, 20395, 28652 ; Meintjes Kop, Bottornleg, 14501, 20434 ; Town Bush, Rump 313, 28675 ; under wattle trees, Hopevale, Morgan & Doidge, 28812, 28813, 28623, 35023, 35026 ; under Podocarpus, Hogsback, Lyle (N. J. G. Smith 35) 27809 ; Haenertsburg, Doidge, 27803 ; Gasstfontein, Bottomley 35133, Doidge,

35018 ; Xumeni Forest, Doidge, 35167 ; Brenton, Knysna, Duthie, 35028.

Geastrum macowani Kalchbr.

Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 108 as Geaster macowani; de Toni (1887) 131 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 91 ; Lloyd (1907) 311, (1910 d) 475 ; Hollós; (1904) 62 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 41 ; N. J. G. Smith (1935) 279 ; Bottomley (1948) 604.

on ground, Cape, without locality, MacOwan ; without locality, Plottner.

Doubtful species.

610

Geastrum mammosum Chev.

N. J. G. Smith (1935) 274 ; Bottomley (1948) 600.

on ground in open or wooded places, Swakop River, between Omaruru and Okahandja , N. J. G. Smith 98.

Gaestrum minimum Schw.

Hollós; (1904) 77 ; Lloyd (1910 d) L. 35 : 3, (1920) 1010 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 22 ; Bottomley (1948) 593.

Geaster granulosus Fuck., de Toni (1887) 74 ; Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 108 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 82 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 41.

Geaster calceus Lloyd (1907) 311 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. XXI : 478 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 41 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 179.

? as Geaster minimus (Pers.) Fischer, N. J. G. Smith (1935) 270.

in humus, amongst shrubs, at foot of Boschberg, MacOwan 1174 (S.A.M. 35063) 35304 ; under pine trees, Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith 34, 25899,

Kew ; Kentani, Pegler 1370, Kew ; Johannesburg, Knox-Davies, 20394 ; under Acacia caffra, Fountains, Pole Evans, 8781 ; Magaliesberg, V. A. Putterill, 11006 ; on open ground amongst rocks, Premier Mine, Pole Evans, 7100 ; without locality, Plottner (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 57280 as G. calceus) ; Cape, without locality, MacOwan, Kew.

Geastrum mirabile Mont.

Bottomley (1948) 598.

under trees, Rooikopjies Plantation, Duivelskloof, Read (T.R.L. 199, det. Wakefield) 35022.

Geastrum nanum Pers.

Bottomley (1948) 589.

on ground or in humus, in open or shaded places, Pretoria, Punt, 17004 ; Irene, J. C. Smuts, 26600 ; Kremrivier, Doidge & Bottomley, 35123 ; Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith 55, 27513 ; Elim, Thomas, 26601 ; Potchefstroom, Sellschop, 28271 ; in red sand under Acacia, Mauritzfontein, J. Acocks 401, 35130 ; Mossel River, nr. Hermanus, Esterhuysen (E. L. Stephens 446) 35024 ; Fishhoek, Peers (E. L. Stephens 445).

Geastrum pectinatum Pers.

Lloyd (1911 b) L. 38 : 3, (1916 d) L. 63 : 4, (1920) 1010, (1922) 1160 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 23 ; N. J. G. Smith (1935) 274 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 181 ; Cunningham (1944) 163 ; Bottomley (1948) 588.

Geaster plicatus Berk., Lloyd (1922) 1122 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 23 ; N. J. G. Smith (1935) 274 ; Nel (1942) 69 ; Cunningham (1944) 163.

? as Geaster plicatilis in van der Byl (1922 d) 286.

Geaster schmidelii Vitt., Lloyd (1911 b) L. 31 : 2.

in humus under trees and bushes, Fountains, Lansdell, 11807, Howlett, 12789, Punt, 14513, N. J. G. Smith, Kew ; Silverton, Reinecke, 23202 ; Johannesburg, Dyke, 26587 ; Xumeni Forest, Doidge, 28904, 28905 ; Stellenbosch. v. d. Byl 479 (Stell. 121). Verwoerd (v. d. Byl 2032) ; Bosfontein, Doidge & Bottomley, 35120 ; Garstfontein, Doidge, 1337, Kew as G. tenuipes ; Meintjes Kop, Bottomley, 20388 ; Tarkastad, N. J. G. Smith 33 b ; Queenstown, Pope, (N. J. G. Smith 97).

Geastrum quadrifidum Pers.

Bottomley (1948) 591.

Geaster coronatus (Schaeff.) Schroet., Lloyd (1920) 952 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 22 ; van der Byl (1921 g) 345, (1925 b) 196.

in humus under trees and bushes, Stella Bush, Moonsamy (v. d. Byl 689)

31895 ; Umgeni, Hobbs (v. d. Byl 754) 31942 ; Durban, v. d. Byl 724, 35131.

611

Geastrum saccatum Fr.

Lloyd (1907) 343, (1911 b) L. 38 : 3, (1916 d) L. 63 : 4, (1917 a) L. 66 : 3, L. 67 : 5, (1920) 960, 1010, (1922) 1160, 1120, 1124 ; van der Byl (1921 g) 346 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 21 ; N. J. G. Smith (1935) 270 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115 ; Bottomley (1948) 597.

usually in humus under trees, Pretoria, Bottomley & Punt, 20584, Bottomley, 14502, 18182, 20393, Doidge, 14482, Punt, 17003, Pole Evans, 6684, 7099, 8810 ; Fountains, Pole Evans, 8765, Reinecke, 23146, Bottomley, 14642, 14495, 14480, 18139 ; Fairy Glen, Reinecke, 23166, Doidge, 32201 ; Silverton, Reinecke, 23196 b ; Garstfontein, Doidge, 35019, 35033, Bottomley, 35134, 35135 ; Barberton, Thorncroft, 18125 ; Sibasa, Junod, 12825 ; van Reenen, Franks 5665 ; Sweetwaters, Spencer, 30831 ; Brenton, Knysna, Duthie 174, 31382 and Duthie 95, 235, 289 ; Kirstenbosch, J. Acocks, (E. L. Stephens 370) 27672 ; Umtali, Eyles 4227 (v. d. Byl 2416) ; Salisbury, Eyles 4086 (v. d. Byl 2350) Natal, J. M. Sim, 9440 ; Durban, v. d. Byl 618 ; Schroeders, v. d. Byl

898 ; Kentani; Pegler 1425 a, 34449, Pegler 1370, 8418, 34450, Kew ; Hermanus, MacPherson, 31492, Bulwer, Rump 464, 35302 ; Montagu, D. v. H., 35025, 35027 ; Sterkstroom, du Plessis, (Duthie 214) ; Somerset Strand, Verwoerd (Stell. 124) ; South West Africa, Dinter.

Geastrum triplex Jungh.

N. J. G. Smith (1935) 270 ; Bottomley (1948) 595.

Geaster capensis von Thuemen (1877 a) 408 ; de Toni (1887) 126 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 126 ; Lloyd (1902) 42 ; Verwoerd (1926 a) 292.

? Geaster affinis Colenso, Verwoerd (1925 a) 41 ; Bottomley (1918) 604.

Geaster coriaceus Colenso, Verwoerd, l. c. ; Bottomley, l.c.

amongst vegetable debris under trees and shrubs, Pretoria, Howlett & Coetzee, 2136 ; Fontains, Lansdell, 11808, Howlett, 12791, L. C. Turner, 8811, Bottomley & Louwrens 28458 ; Silverton, Reinecke, 23196 ; Garstfontein, Pienaar, 1352, 1354, 1356, Kew ; Meintjes Kop, Bottomley, 20422 ; Aapies River, E. J. Scott, 33755 ; Potchefstroom, M. Gunn, 30512 ; nr. Umtata Falls, McLoaghlin, 30508 ; Brenton, Knysna, Duthie 322, 31486 ; Papegaaisberg, Duthie 307, 31475, 35031 ; Kirstenbosch, Bottomley, 24840 ; Hopevale, Doidge, 35118, 35119, Morgan, 32200, 35017 ; Qudeni, Gerstner, 30758 ; Cape Peninsula, E. L. Stephens 140 ; Kirstenbosch. A. M. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 371) 27676 ; Kentani, Pegler 1978, 9546 ; Haenertsburg, Thompson (T. R. L. 280) 29938 ; Orange Free State, without locality, Olivier, (E. L. Stephens 444) 35020 ; Boschberg, MacOwan 1236 (S.A.M. 35057) 35303, Kew ; Inanda, Medley Wood, 489, 11154; 10414 ; without locality, J. M. Sim, 9440, Marloth, 26615.

Geastrum velutinum Morgan

N. J. G. Smith (1935) 2 ; Bottomley (1948) 599.

without locality, 35292 ; eastern Cape, Marloth. ; ? Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith 162.

Geasteropsis conrathi Hollós.

Hollós (1903) 72 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. XVII : 229 ; Bottomley (1948) 606.

on termite hills and on ground, Modderfontein, and Johannesburg, Conraith ; Rietvlei, Pretoria, J. Acocks, 34141 ; Garstfontein, Pienaar, 2278 ; Clarens, v. d. Plank, 35574 ; Danielskuil, Esterhuysen (E. L. Stephens 510).

Myriostoma coliformis (Dicks. ex Pers.) Corda

Verwoerd (1925 a) 24 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; Fischer (1933) 74 ; Nel (1942) 69 ; Bottomley (1948) 605.

Geaster coliformis Dicks. ex Pers., Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 103 ; Hennings (1892) 361 ; Hollós (1904) 47, 130.

612

Bovistoides simplex Lloyd (1919) 883 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 28 ; Fischer (1933)

66 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 170 ; W. H. Long (1942) 532.

in open ground, or in leaf mould under trees, Pretoria, H. A. Wager, 7726 ; Wonderboom, Kresfelder, 9793, 10048 ; Pelindaba, Watson, 24952 ; near Grahamstown, Britten, 33382 ; Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith ; Boschberg, MacOwan 1234 (S.A.M. 35056) 21940 ; Alicedale, Cruden, 12958 ; Knysna, Duthie 112 (v. d. Byl 1090) 31355 ; Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie 59, 95 ; Cradock, Gush ; Garstfontein road, Bottomley, 35166 ; Ubombo, Bell Marley (v. d. Byl 870) ; Stikland, J. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 116, 171) Heathfield, Cousins (E. L. Stephens 443) ; Blikfontein, J. Acocks, 35301; Huisrivierberge, v. d. Byl 1071.

TULOSTOMATACEAE

Batarrea diqueti Pat. et Har.

Bottomley (1948) 621.

on termite heap, Dongola Reserve, Pole Evans, 20459.

Batarrea phalloides (Dicks.) Pers.

Berkeley (1843 b) 517 ; Massee (1889 b) 87 ; Hollós (1904) 41 ; Lloyd (1916 d)

L. 63 : 4, (1922) 1124 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 13 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 195 ;

J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Fischer (1933) 501 ; Nel (1942) 68 ; Bottomley (1948)

619.

on the ground, Uitenhage, Zeyher 114 ; Kalk Bay, Levyns (v. d. Byl 1305).

Batarrea stevenii (Lib.) Fr.

Lloyd (1906 a) 6 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 66 ; Bottomley (1948) 620.

Sphaericeps lignipes Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 290 ; Fischer (1933) 50.

on ground, Kaapmuiden, Wager, 7735 ; Postmasberg, Wilman, 12517 ; Willowmore, Schonland 12518 ; Sekukuni, Lydenburg Distr., Barnard, 28261, 28517 ; Fauresmith, Pont, 28584 ; on banks of the Caroca River near Cabo negro, Welwitsch 150 ; Koffiefontein, Schulz, 9535 ; Rouxville, Wickens, 11294 ; Knapdaar, Gideon Joubert, 18112 ; Lourenço Marques, van Nouhuys, 25936 ; Saltpan, Louis Trichardt, Schweickerdt, 26622 ; Knysna, Bottomley, 30743 ; Duthie 134, 31362 ; Pringles Bay, Compton (E. L. Stephens 461) ; Bantry Bay, V. A. Putterill, 28669 ; foothills of the Langebergen, Marloth, 13437.

Chlamydopus meyenianus (Klotzsch) Lloyd

Bottomley (1948) 625.

in sandy soil, without locality, 35339.

Dictyocephalos attenuatus (Peck) Long & Plunkett

Long & Plunkett (1940) 697 ; Bottomley (1948) 626.

as Phellorina strobilina Kalchbr. in Lloyd (1917 c) 735.

on ground, Wankie, Giese, comm. Duthie (Lloyd Myc. Coll. and Nat. Museum, Bulawayo).

Phellorina inquinans Berk.

Berkeley (1843) 521 ;Verwoerd (1925 a) 14 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 145 ; Fischer (1933) 41 ; Cunningham (1944) 194 ; Bottomley (1948) 623.

Phellorina delastrei (Dur. & Mont.) Fisch., Lloyd (1914) L. 49 : 4.

on sandy soil, Uitenhage, Zeyher 98, Type ; Knapdaar, Gideon Joubert, 11541, 18111, 28519, 28739 ; Springbok Flats, Roberts, 2277 ; Kroonstad, Pont, 24934; Winburg, Haslem, 33272 ; Kingwilliamstown, Leighton, 26409 ; Barkly West, J. Acocks, 28633 ; Clanwilliam, Duthie 203, 31398 ; Vaal River, Kimberley, H. H. W. Pearson.

613

Phellorina strobilina Kalchbr.

Lloyd (1918 a) 734, (1917 a) L. 66 : 13, (1922) 1124, (1924) 1318 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 14; Bottomley (1948) 624.

Phellorina squamosa Kalchbrenner & MacOwan, Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 109 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 40.

on ground, Rust der Winter, Pole Evans, 28645 ; Saltpan, Louis Trichardt, Verwoerd & Schweickerdt, 27456 ; on hard red clay, Limpopo, Pole Evans, 21019 ; Brits, Marais, 20409 ; Glen, Potgieter, 14506, Sellschop, 28270 ; Kroonstad, Pont, 25342 ; Brandfort, Schonken, 31468 ; Fauresmith, Liebenberg, 33250 ; Knapdaar, Gideon Joubert, 18110, 11814 ; Aliwal North, Wickens, 10137 ; Uitenhage, MacOwan 1095 (S.A.M. 35081) 20919 ; without locality, Marloth, 26591, 26620 ; Little Namaqualand, Stokoe, 26619 ; Winburg, Radloff (v. d. Byl 1440), Haslem, 33271, 33461 ; Willowmore, Brauns (v. d. Byl 2508) ; Warmbaths, Rowland, 28808 ; Calvinia, Schmidt, 28809 ; Clanwilliam, Berg (Duthie 26) 31304 ; Bon Accord Dam, Leemann, 25434 ; Fauresmith, Henrici, 35276 ; Brandfort, Duthie 300 ; Southern Rhodesia, Duthie 189.

Podaxis pistillaris (Linn. ex Pers.) Fr.

Morse (1933) 27 ; Fischer (1933) 117 ; Bottomley (1948) 628.

Podaxon pistillaris (Linn. ex Pers.) Fr., Berkeley (1845) 291 ; Kalchbrenner, (1882 a) 107 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 59 ; Medley Wood (1898) 18.

Lycoperdon carcinomale Linn. f. (1781) 453 ; Thunberg (1823) 756.

Scleroderma carcinomale (Linn. f.) Persoon (1801) 151 ; Pappe (1850) 31.

Podaxon carcinomalis (Linn. ex Pers.) Fries (1829) 621 ; Berkeley (1843)

522 ; Montagne (1847) 176 ; Pappe (1857) 45 ; Cooke (1879 b) 70 ; Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 107 ; Fischer (1889) 1 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 58 ; Lloyd (1904 b) 1, (1913 c) L. 47 : 3 ; P. Hennings (1892) 359, (1906) 702 ; Schultze (1907) 705 ; van der Byl (1918 a) 209, (1922 d) 287 ; Watt. & Breijer Brandwyk (1932) 215 ; Smith & Pope (1934) 95.

Podaxis carcinomalis (Linn. ex Pers.) Fr., Massee (1890) 75 ; Morse (1933) 12, 27.

Podaxon elatus Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 288 ; Lorrain Smith (1901) 465; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 59.

Podaxon aegypticus Mont., Fischer (1889) 4 ; P. Hennings (1892) 359.

Podaxis aegyptica Mont., Massee (1890) 76.

Podaxon mossamedensis Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 288 : Lorrain Smith (1901) 465 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. XI : 158 ; Fischer (1933) 117.

Podaxis mossamedensis Welw. & Curr., Massee (1890) 76.

Podaxis indica Spreng., Massee (1890) 75.

on termite hills and in sandy places, Gansekraal, Thunberg ; without locality, Burchell ; Uitenhage, Zeyher 99, Kew ; between “Omtendo” and “Omsamculo” Drège 9454 a, c, & 4115, Kew, Drège 9545 d, Paris ; Klapmuts, J. Acocks, (E. L. Stephens 400) ; between Koelenhof and Mulders Vlei, J. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 414) ; Somerset West Flats, Garside (E. L. Stephens 507) ; Stellenbosch, Krige (Duthie 283 a) ; Greenville Mission, Schaefer, 28260; Karroo, Duthie 24 ; Hopetown–de Aar road, Schweickerdt, 26690 ; Knapdaar, Gideon Joubert, 14507, 18109 ; 20 mis. north of Dordrecht, Dyer, 35425 ; between Windsorton and Klipdam, J. Acocks, 28641 ; Kimberley, Broome, 27369 ; Radloff (v. d. Byl 1183) ; Postmasberg, Esterhuyzen (E. L. Stephens 509) ; without locality, ex Herb. Marloth, 26591 ; north of Zastron, Dyer ; north-east of Rouxville, Dyer ; Bloemfontein, Exton (MacOwan 1362, S.A.M. 34317) 22070 ; Kroonstad, v. d. Byl, 5585; Orange Free State, Exton (MacOwan 1040) ; Hennops River, Pole, Evans, 5125, 20660 ; Pretoria, Pole Evans, 1186, 14682, Wager, 23672. Schweickerdt 27280 ; Pretoria–Johannesburg road, Kresfelder, 26602 ; Garstfontein, Pienaar, 1689, Pole Evans, 2120 ; Skinners Court, Pole Evans, 2119 ; Hamanskraal, Thompson, 1484 ; Welgevonden, Mogg, 28254 ; Brits, Pont, 25915 ; Pietersburg, N. Roberts, 5182 ; Sand

611

River Drift, Messina, Pole Evans, 9789 ; Impati Hills, Dundee, Doidge, 7362 ; Inanda, Medley Wood 405, Kew ; Estcourt, West, 29955, Lansdell, 30714 ; Eshowe, Howlett, 25361; Boroma, Menyharth ; South West Africa, Luckhoff (E. L. Stephens 399) ; Great Namaland, Schultze ; Olukonda, Schinz ; between Lopollo and Monimo, Welwitsch 148 ; on banks of river Maiombo, Welwitsch 149.

Tulostoma adherens Lloyd

Bottomley (1948) 618.

? on sandy soil, Stellenbosch Flats, Duthie (E. L. Stephens 66) 31505.

Tulostoma albicans White

Bottomley (1948) 611.

on sandy or on heavy ground, Ladybrand, Lefebre, 20672 ; Fountains, Pole Evans, 8764 ; Bloemfontein, 11690; Garstfontein, Pienaar, 1969 ; Pretoria, Doidge, 14481; under Acacia trees, Mauritzfontein, J. Acocks, 28638.

Tulostoma album Massee

Bottomley (1948) 610.

in sheep kraal, Bathurst, K. M. Putterill, 28528.

Tulostoma angolense Welw. & Curr.

Welwitsch & Currey (1868) 290 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 61 ; Lorrain Smith (1901) 465 ; Bottomley (1948) 618.

on sand hills near Mossamedes, Welwitsch 147 ; on decaying wood, South Africa, MacOwan, Kew.

Doubtful species.

Tulostoma australianum Lloyd

Bottomley (1948) 617.

on sandy ground, Fauresmith, Henrici, 28311 ; Fort Hare, Giffen, 27501.

Tulostoma bonianum Pat.

Bottomley (1948) 612.

on ground under bushes, Garstfontein, Pienaar, 1969, Doidge, 1344 ; Garstfontein road, Doidge & Bottomley, 30617 ; Fountains, Bottomley, 14499, 20378.

Tulostoma brumale Pers.

Bottomley (1948) 613.

Tulostoma mammosum Fr., Berkeley (1843 b) 520 ; Massee (1889 b) 86 ; Lloyd (1916 d) L. 63 : 11 ; Pole Evans & Bottomley (1918) 193 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 12.

as Tulostoma squamosum (Gmel.) Pers., Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 107.

as Tulostoma mammosum Fr. var. squamosum (Gmel.) Fr., Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 61.

on ground, nr. Koega River, Zeyher 123 ; Somerset East, Tuck (MacOwan 1295) 20928, 20946, Kew ; Portland, Knysna, Duthie 147, 31371 ; Stellenbosch, Verwoerd (Stell. 43 ; v. d. Byl 2033) ; Kentani, Pegler 753.

Tulostoma cyclophorum Lloyd

Lloyd (1906 a) 25 ; Sacc. Syll Fung. XXI : 476 ; van der Byl (1921 d) 185, (1922 d) 287, (1925 b) 195 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 13 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 194 ; Nel (1942) 70 ; Bottomley (1948) 615.

615

on ground, Wellington, Stoneman (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 4495, Type) ; Knysna, Duthie 16, 57, 58, 146, 157, 206 (v. d. Byl 1085 ; Lloyd Myc. Coll. 4494, 14279, 14280, 24519, 24520, 30832, 54734) 31322, 31323, 31370, 31376 ; Stellenbosch, Duthie (E. L. Stephens 73), Eyles (Stell. 78 ; v. d. Byl 1136 ; Lloyd Myc. Coll. 28934, 28959) ; Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith, 25898, Kew ; Matatiele, Gideon Joubert, 27290 ; without locality, O'Connor (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 30833).

Tulostoma lacticeps Bres.

Bresadola (1920) 54 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. XXIII : 591, Bottomley (1948) 614.

on ground, Moçambique, Torrend 420.

Tulostoma lesliei v. d. By1

van der Byl (1921 d) 186 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 12 ; Nel (1942) 70 ; Bottomley (1948) 610.

on soil, Durban, v. d. Byl 57, Type and v. d. Byl 690, 31896.

Tulostoma macowani Bres.

Petri (1904) 429 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. XXI : 475 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 40 ; Bottomley (1948) 617.

on ground, without locality, MacOwan, Kew.

Tulostoma obesum Cooke & Ellis

Bottomley (1948) 616.

Tulostoma poculatum White, Lloyd (1914) L. 49 : 4 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 40. on ground, The Point, Knysna, Duthie 25 (Stell. 68).

Tulostoma purpusii P. Henn.

Lloyd (1924) 1249 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 12 ; Nel (1942) 70 ; Bottomley (1948) 611.

on sandy soil, Stellenbosch, Eyles (v. d. Byl 1132, 1134) ; in wattle plantation, Hopevale, Morgan, 28910, Doidge, 27717, Morgan & Doidge, 30272, Xumeni Forest, Doidge, 35336 ; Bloemfontein, Potts, 11690.

Tulostoma squamosum (Gmel.) Pers.

Bottomley (1948) 613.

on damp soil, Queenstown, Pope (N. J. G. Smith) Kew ; nr. Melkrivier, Karroo, MacOwan, Kew.

Tulostoma transvaalii Lloyd

Lloyd (1920) 1047, 1010 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 13 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 196; Bottomley (1948) 615.

on ground, Warmbaths, V. A. Putterill (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 22713, Type) 11692.

4.5. NIDULARIALES

NIDULARIACEAE

Crucibulum vulgare Tul.

Verwoerd (1925 a) 38 ; Nel (1942) 70 ; Bottomley (1948) 632.

on dead twigs, Papegaaisberg, Loseby (v. d. Byl 2671) and de Vos, 31495 ; Stellenbosch, Verwoerd (Stell. 352).

616

Cyathus berkeleyanus (Tul.) Lloyd

Lloyd (1917 a) L. 67 : 2, 5 ; (1922) 1160 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 36 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 200 ; Nel (1942) 70 ; Bottomley (1948) 640.

on wood, Belvidere, Knysna, Duthie 311 (Stell. 110) 31478 and Duthie (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 22529, 34552, 34554) ; Nottingham Road, v. d. Byl 60, 556 (Lloyd Myc. Coll. 34544) 31815 ; Knysna, Bottomley, 30744.

Cyathus dasypus Nees

Lloyd (1911 b) L. 38 : 3 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 37, (1928 b) 238 ; Bottomley (1948) 634.

Nidularia dasypus Fries (1823) 299.

on ground, Caledon, Verwoerd 194 ; on swampy ground and manure, Cape of Good Hope, without locality.

Cyathus hookeri Berk.

Lloyd (1920) 1010 ; Bottomley (1948) 636.

on twigs, Hogsback K. M. Putterill, 30814: Pretoria, Pole Evans, 12311.

Cyathus microsporus Tul.

Lloyd (1920) 960, 1010 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 37 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Bottomley (1948) 635.

on dead wood, Knysna, Duthie 230, 31416 ; Maritzburg, J. M. Sim, 9205 ; without locality, Verwoerd (Stell. 108) ; Stikland, J. Acocks (E. L. Stephens 465).

Cyathus minutosporus Lloyd emend. Verw.

Verwoerd (1928 b) 238 ; Lloyd (1924) 1325, 1319 ; Stevenson & Cash (1936) 201 ; Bottomley (1948) 634.

on clayey soil, Heidelberg, Transvaal, Neethling (Stell. 330 ; Lloyd Myc. Coll. 24889) Type.

Cyathus montagnei Tul.

Lloyd (1924) 1294 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 36 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Nel (1942) 70 ; Bottomley (1948) 640.

on woody fruits, Knysna, du Preez (v. d. Byl 1330) ; without locality, Verwoerd (Stoll. 156) ; Kirstenbosch, Johns (E. L. Stephens 554).

Cyathus olla Pers.

Simpson & Talbot (1946) 134 ; Bottomley (1948) 636.

Cyathus laevis Thunberg (1800) 182, (1823) 755.

Cyathus vernicosus (Bull.) DC., Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 107; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 38 ; Lloyd (1906 b) 24, (1911 b) L. 38 : 3, (1912 b) L. 39 : 3, (1914) L. 49 : 4, (1917 a) L. 65 : 4, L. 66, 2. (1920) 1010, 1073 ; van der Byl (1922 d) 286 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 3, (1931 a) 300 ; Fischer (1933) 59 ; Nel (1912) 71.

on ground and on rotting wood, Cape, Thunberg ; Somerset East, MacOwan 1042 (S.A.M. 35075) 20981, Kew ; Sea Point, Duthie 31 ; Stellenbosch, Duthie 171, 252, 20, 31380, 31433, 31453, Champion (v. d. Byl 2044) ; Wellington, Bottomley, 1696 ; Hopefield, v. d. Byl 1265 ; Lady Grey, R. I. Nel (v. d. Byl 2349) ; Knysna. J. Phillips, 2068 ; Fishhook, Peers (E. L. Stephens 397) ; Port Elizabeth, Director of Museum, 30782 ; Vaalkrantz, Fauresmith, Botha, 27573 ; Bloemfontein, Potts, 13010, Verwoerd ; Wonderboom, Reinecke, 23705 ; Fountains Valley, Mellé, 11328, Bottomley, 18141 ; Pelindaba, Watson, 25157 ; Hope Vale, Doidge, 28923 ; Maritzburg, J. M. Sim, 9205 ; Qudeni Forest, Simpson & Talbot, 305503 ; Mamathes, Hean, 33494.

617

Cyathus pallidus Berk. & Curt.

Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 107 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 37 ; Lloyd (1915 a) L. 60 : 4 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 37 ; van der Byl (1925 b) 196 ; J. Phillips (1931) 161 ; Fischer (1933) 59 ; Nel (1942) 71 ; Bottomley (1948) 634.

on dead or decaying wood, Somerset East, MacOwan ; Pretoria, Fouché, 15649, Hean, 30727 , King, 28806 ; Fountains, Hean, 30692, Louwrens,

28619 ; Fairy Glen road, Doidge, 30690 ; Garstfontein, Hean, 30689 ; Kromrivier, Doidge & Bottomley, 33254 ; Lemana, Doidge, 1699 ; Grahamstown, E. L. Stephens 255, 27275 ; Kingwilliamstown, Sr. de Victoria, 25486 ; Knysna, Duthie 114, 31357 ; Woodhourne, Knysna, Duthie 63, 31327; Deepwalls, Knysna, Bottomley 30772 ; Knysna, Verwoerd (Stell. 109) ; ? Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith, Kew ; Maritzburg, Rump 65, 27681, Pole Evans, 1340 ; Mooi River, Crass (Rump 444) 28605 ; Xumeni Forest, Doidge, 27735 ; Hope Vale, Doidge, 33257, 33174 ; Pretoria, Krefelder, 28863 ; Mamagalieskraal, Fouché, 21084 ; Kaapmuiden, H. A. Wager, 7727 ; Johannesburg, Porter (v. d. Byl 2550) ; Garstfontein, Doidge, 1348, 30728, Doidge & Hean, 30693 ; Fort, Grahamstown, N. J. G. Smith (E. L. Stephens 492 ; N. J. G. Smith 20).

Cyathus poeppigii Tul.

Cooke (1879 b) 70 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 36 ; Bottomley (1948) 639.

Cyathus sulcatus Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 107 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 36, XI : 156.

as Cyathus plicatulus Poepp., Nel (1942) 71.

on old wood and on ground, Inanda, Medley Wood 334, 10454, 11186, Kew ; Durban, v. d. Byl 594, 597 ; Maritzburg, J. M. Sim, 8803, Rump, 26846, Rump 544, 33962 ; de Beers Rust, Hean, 30691 ; Sibasa, Junod, 12826 ; Port Durnford, Ballenden 32011; Pretoria, Punt, 14500.

Cyathus stercoreus (Schw.) de Toni

Cheesman (1909) 409 ; Verwoerd (1925 a) 37 ; Hopkins (1938 a) 115 ; Nel (1942) 71 ; Lloyd (1908 b) L. 23, (1920) 1010 ; Bottomley (1948) 637.

? as Cyathus rufipes Ell. Lloyd (1906 b) 21-22.

on dung, soil or decaying wood, Livingstone Is., Victoria Falls, Cheesman ; Pretoria, Pole Evans (v. d. Byl 1428) 1902, Bischoff, 8817; Bosmaar, 23665, Punt, 18142, Kresfelder, 25870 ; Fountains, Bottomley & Louwrens, 28620 ; Buffelspoort, Turner, 30687 ; Johannesburg, Moss, 29941 ; Glen, Potgieter, 14690 ; Bloemfontein, Purkiss, 13015 ; Fort Hare, Giffen, 27502 ; Komgha, Cooke, 28589 ; Hopevale, Morgan, 28922, Doidge, 33175, 27718, 35144 ; Brits, 33503 ; Milner Park, Johannesburg (T.R.L. 282) ; Salisbury, Eyles 4104 (v. d. Byl 2347) ; Knysna, Duthie 311b (E. L. Stephens 65) ; Potchefstroom, Lawrence, 21929 ; Onderstepoort, Curson, 18116 ; Maritzburg, J. M. Sim, 8823 ; Kimberley, Moran, 8963 ; Haenertsburg, Thompson (T.R.L. 282) ; Nardouw Pass, de Kock (E. L. Stephens 560) ; without locality, 25316.

f. leseurii Tul.

Bottomley (1948) 638.

on manured ground, Brits, v. d. Plank, 33503.

SPHAEROBOLACEAE

Sphaerobolus stellatus Tode ex Pers.

Kalchbrenner (1882 a) 107 ; Sacc. Syll. Fung. VII : 46 ; Verwoerd (1925 a)

39 ; Bottomley (1948) 641.

on old cow dung and on horse dung, near Somerset East, Tuck (MacOwan 1190 ; S.A.M. 35083) Kew ; Natal, Medley Wood 167 and v. d. Byl ; Pretoria, Pole Evans, 8821; Fountains Valley, Bottomley, 28462 ; Kromrivier, Doidge & Bottomley, 30236 ; Ixopo, Hackland, 15550 ; Hopevale, Doidge, 27719.