Studies in Mycology, No. 24

 

 

Revision of the genus Sporotrichum

 

 

J. A. Stalpers

 

Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn

 

 

Summary

 

The genus Sporotrichum is here restricted to anamorphs of lignicolous basidiomycetes with stalked, broadly attached terminal blastoconidia borne on randomly to racemosely branched conidiophores. conidia and hyphal cells are multinucleate. Only three species are accepted: S. aurantiacum, S. pruinosum and S. versisporum. Their teleomorphs belong to Pycnoporellus, Phanerochaete and Laetiporus, respectively, genera which are considered closely related. The new genus Disporotrichum with the type species D. dimorphosporum deviates from Sporotrichum by the not or scarcely stalked conidia, the presence of a second type of blastoconidium and by being non-lignicolous.

All 339 epithets published in Sporotrichum are listed in a check list, which comprises 319 taxa (313 species and 6 varieties), mostly anamorphs of ascomycetes. Eleven new combinations are proposed: Arthrographis sulphurea, Basipetospora vesicarum, Geniculosporium densissimum, Piloderma fallax, Pycnoporellus metamorphosus, Rhizopus stolonifer var. lyococcos, Disporotrichum dimorphosporum, Sporotrichum versisporum, Talaromyees malagensis, Tomentella lapidum, Tomentella stuposa and Ugola praticola.

 

 

Introduction

 

The genus Sporotrichum was originally described by Link (1809) with the following diagnosis: Thallus consisting of interwoven, appressed or erect, branched and septate hyphae. Spores rounded, scattered everywhere. Somewhat later (1818), Link described sporogenesis as: the sporodia seem to originate from exudation of a fluid from the hyphae, which hardens to solid balls. From this extremely vague characterization it is not surprising that very unrelated taxa have been included in this genus. In this respect Sporotrichum is like Isaria and Stilbum. Any fungus which was effused, had many spores or conidia without conspicuous conidiophores and consisted of loosely interwoven hyphae could have a place in it. The genus served as a litter bag for species in which conidiogenesis (or sporogenesis) was unknown and lacked additional noticeable characters.

Link (1809) described 13 species in this genus, 11 of which were new and two had been described earlier by Persoon (1797) as Dematium. The first species mentioned and the only one figured was S. badium. In a subsequent publication [p. 2] Link (1816) included species from the genera Asporothrichum Link and Dematium Pers. in Sporotrichum; 14 species were added and S. abietinum excluded. Link distinguished two subgenera, viz. Lysisporium with the first species S. aureum and Alytosporium with S. badium as the first species.

In 1818 Link again revised Sporotrichum (with this correct spelling, contrary to the earlier "Sporothrichum"), including the genera Aleurisma Link and Collarium Link, but excluding the former subgenera Dematium and Alytosporium. Sporotrichum was divided into eight series, separated on the basis of colour: alba (white), grisea (grey), flava (yellowish), fuscescentia (brown), rosea (pink to red), aurantiaca (orange to reddish), virescentia (greenish) and nigra (black); 35 species were recognized.

This concept of the genus and the subdivision according to colour remained in use for several decades, only the number of species increased. Persoon (1822) retained Dematium, but included Aleurisma Link and Alytosporium Link in Sporotrichum. Link (1824) also included Byssocladium Link (as a subgenus) and recognized 49 species (plus 10 doubtful); he retained Alytosporium as a separate genus with five species. Fries (1825) removed the black-spored species to the new genus Trichosporum Fr. (cited in many publications as "Trichosporium").

Saccardo (1886) transferred the species of the zoopathogenic genus Microsporon Gruby to Sporotrichum, which up to then had only contained saprophytic species and plant pathogens. He recognized 100 species. After Saccardo only Lindau (1907) has given a full account of the genus, and he made only minor changes in the generic circumscription.

Most of the literature between 1907 and 1958 concerned human-pathogenic species, although a number of saprophytic species were described. Hughes (1958) examined 49 type specimens of species described in Sporotrichum. He selected S. aureum Link as lectotype species and accepted only one additional species, S. merdarium.

Müller (1964a, 1964b, 1965) revised 63 species (including eight nomina nuda) described from man and animals. He concluded that only four species could be accepted, viz. S. cejpii, S. lipsiense and S. parvulum in one group and S. schenckii in another group. Moreover, he concluded that the two groups were not congeneric. Müller thus accepted Sporotrichum for human-pathogenic species, despite the fact that such species were introduced to the genus only in 1886 and that none of the species he accepted were mentioned in his discussion of the generic type. Carmichael (1962) had already restored S. schenckii to Sporothrix Hektoen & Perkins, a disposition which is now generally accepted (de Hoog, 1974). Taylor (1970) reduced the species of Müller’s other group to synonymy of Geomyces (Chrysosporium) pannorum (Link) Sigler & Carmichael.

Von Arx (1971) recognized S. aureum as the anamorph of a Basidiomycete. Stalpers (1975) revised the genus Alytosporium.

In the genus Sporotrichum Link : Fr. 339 epithets have been published; 14 of them are nomina nuda, 6 are nomina nova and of the remaining 319 taxa there are 313 species and six varieties. The species mainly are anamorphs of ascomycetes and resupinate basidiomycetes, although some even belong to the lichens, bacteria or Mucorales.

In the concept adopted here (typified by S. aureum) Sporotrichum contains [p. 3] three lignicolous species with stalked, broadly attached, terminal blastoconidia borne on randomly to sympodially branched conidiophores. Conidia and hyphal cells are multinucleate. Connected with this character is the presence of wide hyphae (more than 5 µm) and the absence of clamp connections at the septa of hyphae, other than the wide advancing hyphae.

 

 

Methods

Isolates were grown in polystyrene Petri dishes on neutralized 2% malt extract agar (MEA) and cherry decoction agar (ChA, pH 4-5) at room temperature in diffuse daylight. Drop tests on laccase and tyrosinase were performed as described by Käärik (1965) and Stalpers (1978). Spot test reactions were also recorded with 4% KOH. Microscopical slides were examined with aniline blue in lactic acid. Preparations for scanning electron microscopy were made according to Samson et al. (1979). Capitalized colour names refer to Ridgway (1912), colour codes to Kornerup and Wanscher (1978).

Observations on nuclei were performed with a Leitz Dialux 20EB microscope with Ploemopak fluorescence device and a 50 W mercury lamp. Fluorochromes were either 0.0025% acridine orange in veronal-acetate buffer (pH = 4.5) with filtre 12 or a 1:1 mixture of (a) 5 mg mitramycin and 125 Mg MgCl2 in 100 ml 12.5% ethanol and (b) 2.5 mg ethidium bromide, 1.2 g TRIS buffer, 0.6 g NaCl in 100 ml H2O (pH = 7.4) with filtre G or I2 (Barlogie et al., 1976). After 5-10 min. at room temperature the cells were ready for examination. Cells with relatively thick walls gave better results after gentle heating, especially when mitramycin was used.

 

 

Key to some often confused genera

 

 

1

Conidiogenous cells with an apical cluster of denticles or with a denticulate rachis

2

 

Conidiogenous cells not denticulate

3

 

 

 

2

Conidia of one type only, up to 10 µm long; clamps absent

Sporothrix

 

Dimorphic; ellipsoidal conidia at least 13 µm long; multiple clamps typically present at some septa

Disporotrichum

 

 

 

3

Clamps present at all septa

Ptychogaster and related genera

 

Clamps absent or scattered

4

 

 

 

4

Thick-walled submerged hyphae present: conidia terminal, smooth; reverse unchanged or bleached

5

 

Submerged hyphae thin-walled; conidia either intercalary or lateral and sessile, often echinate; reverse unchanged or darker

6

 

 

 

5

Blastoconidia dimorphic: (a) ellipsoidal, 13-24 x 8-13 µm, (b) cylindrical, 5.5-15(-20) x 1.4-1.5(-3) µm; conidiophores unbranched or with very short branches; multiple clamps typically present

Disporotrichum

 

Blastoconidia smaller, of one type only; conidiophores distinctly branched; clamps absent or rarely present, but then never multiple

Sporotrichum

 

[p. 4]

 

6

Branching of conidiogenous hyphae mostly verticillate; lateral conidia rare or absent

Geomyces

 

Branching of conidiogenous hyphae not verticillate; lateral conidia abundantly present

7

 

 

 

7

Conidia often borne on swellings

Myceliophthora

 

Conidia not borne on swellings

Chrysosporium

 

[p. 5]

 

 

Sporotrichum Link

 

Sporotrichum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf Freunde, Berlin 3: 12. 1809 = Sporotrichum Link : Fr. 1821- Syst. mycol. 1: XLIV. 1821 (introduction) and 3: 415. 1832.

 

     Colonies at first appressed, becoming farinaceous to floccose, white to yellow or orange. Reverse unchanged to paler. Reaction with α-naphthol negative or weak, with p-cresol negative.

     Marginal hyphae hyaline, 2.0-8.5 µm wide, with few septa. Clamps absent or limited to wide advancing hyphae. Branching often inequivalent. Aerial hyphae thin- to slightly thick-walled, often covered with fine granular material. Conidiophores hardly differentiated from vegetative hyphae, branched, each branch forming a terminal blastoconidium. Branching racemose with primary, secondary and sometimes tertiary branches, terminating in botryose clusters of conidia. conidia attached with a broad base, having thickened walls when mature, seceding rhexolytically. Bipyramidal and prismatic crystals often present.

     Other anamorphs: arthroconidia often present. Chlamydospores always present, terminal and intercalary.

     Nuclear distribution: cells of marginal and submerged hyphae multinucleate, aerial hyphae multinucleate, with a tendency to become binucleate, conidia uninucleate (rarely binucleate) when young, becoming at least 4-nucleate and often 6-8-nucleate. Arthroconidia originating from conidiophores containing 2-4(-9) nuclei per cell, chlamydospores multinucleate with up to 20 or more nuclei.

 

     Teleomorphs: Phanerochaete P. Karst., Laetiporus Murrill, Pycnoporellus Murrill.

 

     Lectotype species: S. aureum Link (= S. aurantiacum (Bull. : Fr.) Fr.)

 

 

Typification

     When Link (1809) described Sporotrichum, he did not indicate a type species. Since then, the following proposals for a lectotype have been made:

1.    Saccardo (1880): S. roseum and S. virescens (as "exempla").

2.    Castellani and Chalmers (1919): S. obducens.

3.    Clements and Shear (1931): S. roseum.

4.    Dodge (1935): S. badium.

5.    Carrión and Silva (1955): S. aurantiacum.

6.    Hughes (1958): S. aureum.

 

     Donk (1962), the only author who has really discussed the problems concerning the typification of Sporotrichum, considered only three of the above possibilities, viz. 1, 3 and 6. His reasoning is sound and may be partly applied to the other possibilities too; it is integrated in the following discussion.

     Link (1809) introduced the genus with 13 species. Later (1816) he divided it into the subgenera Lysisporium and Alytosporium; the latter was subsequently (Link, 1818) excluded and given generic rank. The remaining original species of the subgenus Lysisporium are thus eligible as lectotype. These are, in the order listed by Link: S. aureum, S.vitellinum, S. luteo-album, S. candidum, S. densum, [p. 6] S. griseum and S. virescens (= Dematium virescens Pers.). Fries (1821) sanctioned the genus without mentioning any species, thus accepting Link’s original concept.

     Ad 1 and 3. Saccardo did not really typify the genus, but merely cited two species as examples, from which Clements & Shear (1931) choose S. roseum as lectotype. However, this species cannot be a valid lectotype, because it was not among the species originally referred to Sporotrichum by Link (Art. 63, ICBN). If one considers S. virescens a suitable candidate, the following is important. Link (1809) mentioned Dematium virescens Pers. as a synonym and thus the basionym of the species, but probably based the combination on material of his own, because he later (1818) referred to "Sporotrichum virescens Link excl. synon." This makes it a bad choice, because Sporotrichum would then become a genus with a misapplied generic type.

     Ad 2. S. obducens is not an original species and thus not eligible as lectotype.

     Ad 4. S. badium is not suitable, because Link (1816) mentioned it as the first species of the subgenus and later (Link, 1818) genus Alytosporium (ICBN, Guide for the identification of types, 4d).

     Ad 5. S. aurantiacum. The species is based on Mucor aurantius Bull., which is not an original species of Sporotrichum.

     Ad 6. There are no objections against this choice. On the contrary, it is the first species of the subgenus Lysisporium.

 

 

Remarks on morphology

 

     The hyphae of Sporotrichum and Disporotrichum are variable in width, cell shape, wall thickness, type of septation (simple, with a single clamp or with verticillate clamps) and branching (often inequivalent, with a much wider parent hypha). Such variation is not uncommon among species of Basidiomycetes with multinucleate hyphal cells, occurring, for example, in Coniophora DC. (Ginns, 1982); wall thickness also varies in that genus, but the variation is less pronounced. Some strains of Coniophora also tend to form more dikaryotic cells than others of the same species.

     Inequivalent branching is found particularly in the marginal hyphae. This phenomen on is not rare in the Aphyllophorales, but occurs only in species which at some point in their life cycle have hyphae with multinucleate cells. The narrower side branches contain either considerably fewer nuclei per cell (in holocoenocytic species) or have binucleate cells (astatocoenocytic species).

     Although there are three principally different kinds of conidia produced by species of Sporotrichum, viz. blastoconidia, arthroconidia and chlamydospores, it is not always possible to distinguish between these types, especially after secession. In some strains clustered blastoconidia may be morphologically very similar to arthroconidia (Fig. le). Typical blastoconidia are subglobose to broadly ellipsoidal, but some swell very little and secede some distance below the swelling, so that they become obpyriform. From this type it is a small step to cylindrical arthroconidia. Generally only intercalary parts of the conidiophores are converted into arthroconidia, sometimes the terminal parts become arthroconidia [p. 7] too. Moreover, real arthroconidia may round off somewhat and become slightly thick-walled, thus mimicking ellipsoidal blastoconidia.

     There is also a gradual transition from clustered conidia borne on branched conidiophores to solitary conidia and from solitary conidia to terminal chlamydospores (Fig. 1a-d). Clustered conidia are always borne on rather narrow (1.5-2.5 µm wide) conidiophores, but wider conidiophores bearing larger and thicker-walled conidia with a decreasing number of conidia per cluster also occur. A useful criterion could be the number of nuclei originally transported from the conidiogenous cell into the conidium. Clustered blastoconidia typically receive only one nucleus, while chlamydospores get more. Morphologically it is sometimes impossible to distinguish between them. Moreover, many blastoconidia become somewhat thick-walled, a process which may continue after secession and thus they become chlamydospores.

 

 

Fig. 1. Various types of conidia and transitions between them. a-d. blastoconidia to chlamydospores; e. blastoconidia to arthroconidia. Bar represents 10 µm.

 

 

Phenoloxidases

     In the lignicolous fungi the presence of laccase and the type of rot they cause are generally recognized as important taxonomic characters, which have been used to distinguish genera (Domański, 1965; David, 1980). In Sporotrichum, however, the reaction with α-naphthol varied between the species and the type of rot was not the same for all species. Furthermore, the reaction with α-naphthol did not always agree with the type of rot caused by that species.

     When tested with gallic and tannic acid agar (Bavendamm, 1928), all species of Sporotrichum were consistently negative, indicating absence of laccase. This is not in agreement with the type of rot. Only one species, S. versisporum, is [p. 8] generally considered a brown rot fungus (Domański et al., 1967), for S. aurantiacum the type of rot is not known and S. pruinosum causes a white rot. Other species of Pycnoporellus cause an indistinct, but probably brown rot (Domański, 1965; Niemelä, 1980), and react negatively in tests on laccase (David, 1969; Stalpers, 1978). The species of Phanerochaete produce a white rot, but the reaction in tests for laccase is weak or even negative (Stalpers, 1978).

     The reaction with α-naphthol is certainly more sensitive than tbe Bavendamm tests, but in the various isolates of both S. aurantiacum and S. pruinosum (table 3) it is variable. One hour after the addition of a drop of α-naphthol a reaction is never visible, after three hours some strains show a purplish ring and after three days most show a purplish ring; however, some isolates show no reaction at all.

     In the Aphyllophorales such variability is not common, but is known to occur in several genera, for example Athelia, Meruliopsis, Phanerochaete and Xenasma, of which at least the first three are considered to be related (Parmasto, 1968; Jülich and Stalpers, 1980). Even Coniophora puteana, a notorious brown rotter, is in certain conditions capable of producing laccase (Stalpers, 1978). It is thus likely, that more or even all species of the Aphyllophorales have the genetic potential to produce laccase than actually do produce it; this production must either be induced by the presence of phenolic compounds or is normally completely blocked and occurs only under special conditions.

 

 

Nuclear behaviour

 

     The nuclear behaviour in the anamorphic life cycle of Sporotrichum is comparable to that of the holocoenocytic teleomorphic life cycle. The multinucleate conidium gives rise to a multinucleate mycelium, which tends to become binucleate in tbe conidiogenous areas. The conidia themselves are at first typically uninucleate or more rarely binucleate, but soon become 4-, and finally 6-8-nucleate. This phenomenon strongly resembles the teleomorphic life cycle up to the formation of the basidia, which finally also have eight nuclei. The only difference is, that in the basidia karyogamy and meiosis occur, while conidial nuclei undergo mitotic divisions only. There are many reasons to consider the conidia of Sporotrichum homologous with basidia, for example the identical branching patterns of conidiophores and basidial clusters. A more detailed discussion is found in Stalpers and Vlug (1983); see also Prillinger (1983).

 

 

Medical importance

     Since Saccardo (1886) included Microsporon in Sporotrichum, many zoopathogenic species have been placed in the genus. Most of them were discussed by Müller (1964a-b, 1965), but since then the taxonomic position of many species has changed. Of all species ever isolated from mammals only two belong to Sporotrichum s. str. and these were not treated by Müller. In Table 1 all species isolated from mammals and ever placed in Sporotrichum are listed with their currently accepted taxonomic position and the disease they may cause. [p. 9]

 

Table 1. Species of Sporotrichum reported from mammals (for references see Check-list).

 

Name

Revised identity

Disease

 

 

 

S. acuminatum

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. affine

Candida albicans

Candidosis

S. anglicum

Trichosporon variabile = Hyphopichia burtonii

 

S. asteroides

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. audouinii

Microsporum audouinii

Tinea (ringworm)

S. aureum

Sporotrichum aurantiacum

 

S. beigelii

Trichosporon beigelii

Piedra alba

S. beurmannii

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. bronchiale

?

 

S. carougeaui

Trichosporon variabile = Hyphopichia burtonii

 

S. cerebriforme

Trichosporiella cerebriformis

 

S. congolense ?

 

 

S. councilmannii

?

 

S. cracoviense

?

 

S. crateriforme

?

 

S. eutaneum

Geotrichum candidum

Geotrichosis

S. dermatodes

?

 

S. dermatosus

?

 

S. dimorphosporum

Disporotrichum dimorphosporum

 

S. dispar

?

Pityriasis

S. dori

?

 

S. epigaeum

?

 

S. equi

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. foliicola

Aureobasidium pullulans

 

S. fonsecae

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. furfur

Malassezia-furfur

Pityriasis versicolor

S. gougerotii

Sporothrix schenckii. Name often used for angiella dermatitidis and Exophiala mansonii

 

S. greconis

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. grigsbyi

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. guayaquilense

?

 

S. humanum

?

 

S. indicum

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. infestans

Trichosporon beigelii

Piedra alba

S. janselmei

Sporothrix schenckii

 

S. laetieolor

S. aurantiacum

 

S. lecante

?

 

S. lesnei

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. lipsiense

Geomyces pannorum

 

S. mansonii

Exophiala mansonii

 

S. mentagrophytes

Trichophyton mentagrophytes

Tinea

S. minutissimum

Corynebacterium minutissimum

Erythrasma

S. muris

?

 

S. pereirae

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. pruinosum

S. pruinosum

Adiaspiromycosis

S. schenckii

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. schenckii-beurmannii

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. schoenleinii

Trichophyton schoenleinii

Favus (Tinea favosa)

S. tropicale

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

S. verticilloides

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

[p. 10]

 

 

Key to the species

 

1

Colonies whitish

S. pruinosum

 

Colonies yellow to orange or pinkish buff

2

 

 

 

2

Conidia 10-14 µm long; colonies orange-yellow, turning red in KOH; clamps occasionally present on advancing hyphae

S. aurantiacum

 

Conidia 6-10 µm long; colonies buff to pale orange yellow or salmon, not changing in KOH; clamps consistently absent

S. versisporum

 

[p. 11]

 

 

 

Description of the species

 

Sporotrichum aurantiacum (Bull. : Fr.) Fr. - Figs. 2-3-4.

 

     Sporotrichum aureum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 3: 13. 1809 [non S. aureum (Pers. : Fr.) Fr. 1832] = Trichosporum aureum (Link) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand. 2: 492. 1849.

     Mucor aurantius Bull. - Hist. Champ. Fr., p. 103. 1788 = Aegerita aurantia (Bull.) DC. apud Lam. & DC. - Flore française éd. 3, 2: 72.1805 = Sporotrichum aurantiacum (Bull. : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 423. 1832 (name change).

Sporotrichum laeticolor Cooke & Massee apud Cooke - Grevillea 20: 38. 1891.

 

Teleomorph: Pycnoporellus metamorphosus (Fuckel) Stalpers

     Growth on ChA at room temperature: 70 mm radius in 10-14 days; growth on MEA none or reaching 30-45 mm radius in two weeks. Cardinal temperatures: minimum 5°C, optimum 33-35°C, maximum 44°C. Advancing zone appressed, even, hyphae distant to rather dense. Colony appressed at the margin, locally farinaceous, white, later becoming floccose to mealy floccose, Maize Yellow to Buff Yellow or Orange Buff (4A4, 4A5, 5A6, 5A7) in two weeks, and finally Light Orange Yellow, Cadmium Yellow or Antimony Yellow to (around the inoculum) Mikado Orange, Cadmium Orange or Xanthine Orange (4A8, 6B5-6B7, 7C8, 7D8). White dots of aerial mycelium developing here and there, becoming yellow later. Yellow to orange parts immediately turning red in KOH. Reverse unchanged or becoming somewhat paler. Reaction with α-naphthol negative at first, forming an open purplish ring after one day. Reaction with p-cresol negative. Odour insignificant.

     Marginal hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, 2-7.5(-8.5) µm wide, without or with very few septa, rarely with clamps. Cells multinucleate. Branching often inequivalent with much wider parent hyphae; branching locally very dense. Narrower branches sometimes curling around the main hypha. Crystals absent.

     Aerial hyphae hyaline, thin- to slightly thick-walled, 2-4.5 µm wide, without clamps (rarely a clamp is found in the aerial mycelium), often covered with fine granular hyaline to yellowish material which dissolves in 4% KOH. Conidiophores branched, each branch producing a terminal blastoconidium; branching racemose to nearly sympodial in densely branched conidiophores. Distance between and length of the branches variable, rather large in young conidophores, denser and shorter in older conidiophores until the conidia are formed in botryose clusters. conidia with a broad base, yellow at maturity, thick-walled (up to 2 µm), ellipsoidal, (8-)10-14(-17) x (5-)5.5-8(-9.5) µm, cyanophilous when young, not amyloid, turning red in KOH. Arthroconidia absent. Rarely second conidia formed below the terminal ones and then separated by a short connective cell. Chlamydospores present, terminal or more usually intercalary, thick-walled (up to 3 µm), typically globose to broadly ellipsoidal, 14-21(-32) x (8.5-)11-19(-30) µm. Crystals present, prismatic or bipyramidal.

Submerged hyphae hyaline, thin- to thick-walled (up to 2.5 µm), 2.5-8 µm wide. Chlamydospores intercalary, subglobose to ellipsoidal, 12-22 x 8-14 µm. [p.12]

 

 

Fig. 2. Sporotrichum aurantiacum. a-c. conidiogenous structures; a, c. CBS 319.75; b.       CBS 441.70; d-f. blastoconidia; d. type specimen of Sporotrichum aureum; e. CBS 441.70; f. CBS 319.75; g-h. chlamydospores; g. CBS 319.75; h. CBS 441.70. Bar represents 10 µm. [p.13]

 

 

 

Fig. 3. Sporotrichum aurantiacum, conidiogenous structures. a-c: CBS 319.75; a. 1300 x; b. 1700 x ; c. 1400 x ; d-e. CBS 154.79, 800 x ; f. CBS 319.75, 2200 x . [p.14]

 

 

Fig. 4. Sporotrichum aurantiacum, conidiophores and conidia. a-b. CBS 154.79; a. 2100 x; b. 1000 x.

 

     Nuclear distribution: cells of young radiating mycelium multinucleate, those of aerial mycelium multinucleate with a tendency to binucleate, conidia with 2-8 nuclei.

 

     Species code (Stalpers, 1978): (1), 4, (6), (7), (8), 11, 13, (14), 18, 19, (22), (30), 35, (37), (39), (40), (44), (45), 48, 50, 52, 53, 54, (55), 57, (61), 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 89, 96.

 

     Species code (Nobles, 1965): 1, 5, (7), (25), 33, 34, (36), (37), (38), (40), 42-43, 54.

 

 

Fig. 5. Pycnoporellus metamorphosus. a-d. CBS 441.70; a-c. basidia; d.    basidiospores; e-f. type specimen of Sporotrichum aureum; e. spores; f. basidia. Bar represents 10 µm. [p. 15]

 

 

Pycnoporellus metamorphosus (Fuckel) Stalpers comb. nov. Fig. 5.

 

     Polyporus metamorphosus Fuckel - Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 27-28: 87. 1873 (basionym) = Poria metamorphosa (Fuckel) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 6: 315. 1888.

 

     Basidiomata on the natural substrate annual, resupinate, effused, adnate, up to 5 mm thick. Hymenial surface irpicoid to poroid, cream-coloured to pale ochraceous. Pores somewhat irregular, angular to sometimes lacerate, 1-2(-3) per mm. Pore dissepiments thin, membranaceous to ceraceous, hard when dry, sometimes perforated, especially in the lower half. The underlaying trama is loose, but often very scanty. No colour reaction with KOH.

     Subicular hyphae hyaline to slightly yellowish, thin- to somewhat thick-walled, 2.5-5 µm wide, septate, clamps absent or extremely rare. Subhymenial hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, 2.5-4 µm wide. Branching usually immediately below a septum in the main hypha; hyphae sometimes swollen below a septum and several hyphae sprouting from the swelling. Cystidia absent. Basidia terminal, in racemose clusters, hyaline, thin-walled, clavate to subcylindrical, 15-25 x 4-5.5(-6) µm. In pure culture aberrant basidia were also found: up to 5 basidia arose more or less simultaneously from a terminally swollen subhymenal hypha (Fig. 2a). Spores hyaline, thin-walled, cylindrical, curved, (4.5-)5-6.5(-7) x (2-)2.2-2.8(-3) x 2.5-3 µm, not amyloid.

     On angiospermous wood.

 

Material examined

 

Living strains:

CBS 441.70, from angiospermous wood, Region pyrenéenne, France, J. Nicot.

CBS 319.75, from Quercus petraea, Herlany (Kosice), Czechoslovakia, V. Holubová-Jechová.

CBS 154.79, isolated from human lung tissue, Academic Hospital, Groningen, Netherlands.

CBS 300.82, from air, Academic Hospital, Groningen, Netherlands, F. Beaumont.

 

Herbarium specimens:

A. anamorph and teleomorph: Fuckel Fungi rhen. No 2008, isotype of Polyporus metamorphosus Fuckel, on Quercus sp., Nassau, Germany, (K); Fuckel Fungi rhen. No 2604, from Quercus, Germany, (K); type of Sporotrichum aureum, on rotten wood, (B); K 60/43, on sawdust, Farwath, Pickering, Yorkshire, England, W. G. Bramley (K).

B. anamorph only: L 910.262-546, on rotten wood, received by Persoon from Link, probably part of type specimen, but without the teleomorph (L).

C. teleomorph only: from Quercus log, Cotterill Clough, Cheshire, England, B. Hatham (K); from log of Castanea, Deal, Kent, England, G. Halliwell (K).

 

Discussion

     Link (1824) synonymized Mucor aurantius with Sporotrichum aureum Link, but did not use the older epithet. Fries (1832) accepted this synonymy, but misspelled the older epithet (in the index of the Systema Mycologicum the name is cited as "S. aurantiacum Lk"). He cited Mucor aurantius as the first synonym and Aegerita aurantia as the second, misspelling it as A. aurantiaca. It is thus [p. 16] most likely, that S. aurantiacum is based on Mucor aurantius Bull. In the sanctioning protologue Fries considered S. aureum as a synonym of this species. As the type specimen is not extant, this synonymy cannot be proven, but the original diagnosis and drawing give no evidence to the contrary, thus the name has to be accepted and can be used for S. aureum Link.

     Although Fuckel (1873) described in detail both the anamorph and the teleomorph and their connection, the identity of both was subsequently often confused. Bourdot and Galzin (1928) considered Poria metamorphosa a form or variety of Poria aneirina (Sommerf.) Cooke. Wakefield (1952) redescribed Poria metamorphosa from British collections and preferred to keep it distinct from P. aneirina. She was not followed by later authors (e.g. Domański, 1965; Sivanesan and Watling, 1980), who followed Bourdot and Galzin’s concept. Lowe (1966) also considered the species different. P. aneirina is a distinct species which was well described by Domański (1965, as Ceriporiopsis) and Ryvarden (1978, as Tyromyces), differing from P. metamorphosa in having clamps at all septa and broader spores.

     Fuckel (1873) did not recognize his anamorphic fungus as Sporotrichum aureum Link, because it did not have globose conidia. He referred to Link (1824) and subsequent authors but not to Link’s original publication (1809), in which the conidia were described as "ovalia". Donk (1974), aware of von Arx’s (1971) redescription of S. aureum and thus of the ellipsoidal rather than globose conidia, rightly concluded that Poria metamorphosa is the teleomorph of S. aureum.

     Pycnoporellus metamorphosus fits well within this genus as described by Domański (1972), Ryvarden (1978) and Niemelä (1980). The general habit, texture and colour of the basidioma agree, as do most microscopical structures (hyphae lacking clamps, some thick-walled; shape of basidia and spores). Cystidia or cystidioles are absent or very rare, while in the other species of Pycnoporellus they are always present. The basidiomata do not react with KOH, but this may be due to the fact that all examined specimens had a very thin subiculum. Because the conidiogenous parts reacted positively with KOH, it is expected that specimens having a thick subiculum will also react positively. Moreover, like P. alboluteus (Niemelä, 1980), P. metamorphosus may form basidiomata at 5°C in culture.

     Pycnoporellus Murrill is undoubtedly related to Laetiporus Murrill, as was first suggested by Niemelä (1980). The morphology of P. metamorphosus has two features which further support this association: the anamorphs of this species and L. sulphureus are both good species of Sporotrichum, and cultures of P. metamorphosus sometimes show thick-walled, irregularly branched hyphae resembling those of Laetiporus. The terms "binding hyphae" and "dimitic" in connection with structures of Laetiporus (e.g. Domański et al., 1967) is not adequate. These hyphae do not resemble binding hyphae of, for example, Trametes, which are narrow and regular, while those of Laetiporus are rather wide and irregular. As Niemelä (1980) stated, L. sulphureus is monomitic. Ryvarden (1978) called the species dimitic, but described the thick-walled hyphae as sclerified generative hyphae. [p. 17]

 

 

Fig. 6. Sporotrichum pruinosum. a-e. CBS 316.75; a-c. conidophores of increasing age; d. blastoconidia; e. chlamydospores; f-k. CBS 129.27; f. conidiophore, original drawing of Gilman and Abbott; g-h. blastoconidia and arthroconidia; i. capitate hypha and chlamydospores; j. chlamydospores; k. thick-walled hypha. Bar represents 10 µm. [p. 18]

 

 

Sporotrichum pruinosum Gilman & Abbott Figs 6-7-8.

 

     Sporotrichum pruinosum Gilman & Abbott - Iowa St. Coll. J. Sci. 1: 306. 1927 = Chrysosporium pruinosum (Gilman & Abbott) Carmichael - Can. J. Bot. 40: 1166. 1962.

     Emmonsia brasiliensis Batista & al. - Revta Fac. Med. Univ. Ceara 3: 52. 1963.

     Emmonsia ciferrina Thirumalachar & al. - Mycopath. Mycol. appl. 26: 330. 1965.

     Sporotrichum dehradunense Sarbhoy & Saksena - Sydowia 19: 198. 1966 (" 1965").

     Sporotrichum pulverulentum Novobranova - Nov. Sist. niz. Rast. 9: 184. 1972.

 

Teleomorph: Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burdsall

 

     Growth on MEA and ChA: 70 mm radius in 10-14 days. Cardinal temperatures: minimum 7°C, optimum 36-40°C, maximum 46-49°C. Advancing zone appressed, even, hyphae distant. Colony appressed at the margin, becoming locally farinaceous to mealy-floccose and finally nearly completely farinaceous, white to cream-coloured, sometimes with a faint to distinct greyish or pinkish hue; hyaline spots without aerial mycelium may be present in the colony. After 6 weeks colonies becoming felty. Reverse paler. Reaction with α-naphthol negative or weak, forming an open purplish ring after 1-3 days. Reaction with p-cresol negative. Odour insignificant.

     Marginal hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, 3-7.5(-8) µm wide, with few septa, lacking clamps. Cells multinucleate. Branching generally inequivalent with much wider parent hyphae. Crystals absent.

 

 

Fig. 7. Sporotrichum pruinosum. a-d. CBS 671.71; a. old fragmenting conidiophore; b. arthroconidia; c. blastoconidia; d. chlamydospores; e- h. conidia; e. CBS 104.82; f. CBS 255.65; g. CBS 363.65; h. CBS 481.73. Bar represents 10 µm. [p. 19]

 

 

Fig. 8. Sporotrichum pruinosum, blastoconidia and arthroconidia. a. CBS 481.73, 900 x ; b. CBS 316.75, 1900 x .

 

     Aerial hyphae hyaline, 2.5-5(-8) µm wide, thin- to thick-walled, septate, without clamps, often covered with crystalline or granular material. Branching generally equivalent. Conidiophores simple or typically branched. Branching racemose, each branch forming a terminal blastoconidium. Blastoconidia from branched conidiophores hyaline, subglobose to ellipsoidal or ovoidal, (5-)6-10(-11.5) x (4-)5-8.5(-10) µm. Blastoconidia from unbranched conidiophores ellipsoidal to ovoid pyriform or nearly cylindrical, 5-8(-10.5) x (3-)3.5-4.5(- 5.5) µm. All blastoconidia broadly attached and becoming thickwalled. Chlamydospores terminal or intercalary, hyaline, (sub)globose to broadly ellipsoidal or more rarely pyriform, 11-60 µm diam or 11-18 x 7.5-15 µm, with granular contents and thick walls (up to 4.5 µm). Arthroconidia hyaline, cylindrical or rather irregular, often with granular contents, thin-walled, but sometimes becoming slightly thick-walled and more ellipsoidal. Crystals often present, hyaline, bipyramidal or prismatic.

     Submerged hyphae hyaline, 2.5-8 µm wide, thin- to thick-walled (up to 1.5 µm), often irregular in outline or with swellings. Ellipsoidal intercalary chlamydospores sometimes present.

     Nuclear behaviour: young cells of radiating mycelium multinucleate, those of aerial mycelium multinucleate, conidia with 2-8 nuclei.

 

Species code (Stalpers, 1978): (1), (5), (6), (11), 13, 14, 18, 19, (25), 30, (31), 37, 48, 50, 52, 53, 54, (55), 57, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, (88), (89), (90), 96, 98.

 

Species code (Nobles, 1965): 1, 6, (7), 14, (25), 26, 33, 34, 35, 36, 40, 41-42, (48), 54, 55.

 

Material examined

 

Living strains:

CBS 129.27 = ATCC 1727 = QM 1242 = UAMH 810 = IMI 74692, type strain of Sporotrichum pruinosum, from soil, Iowa, U.S.A., E. V. Abbott.

CBS 171.61 = IBM 450 = QM 826 = IMI 110120 = UAMH 889, from army hat head band, U.S.A., B. J. Wiley.

CBS 578.63 = ATCC 15155, from soil, India, M. J. Thirumalachar. CBS 255.65 = ATCC 16497, from soil, Brasil, A. Ch. Batista, sent as Emmonsia brasiliensis. [p. 20]

CBS 363.65 = ATCC 16107, from soil, India, M. J. Thirumalachar, sent as Emmonsia ciferrina.

CBS 283.71, Kymmene Aktiebolag, Finland.

CBS 671.71 = ATCC 28326 = NRRL 6360, from pine chip, Sweden, Th. Nilsson, sent as Chrysosporium lignorum.

CBS 481.73 = ATCC 24725 = NRRL 6361 = IMI 174827 = VKM-F 1767, type strain of Sporotrichum pulverulentum, from grapes and grape stalks, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R., T. I. Novobranova.

CBS 316.75, from wood, Indonesia;

CBS 104.82, from wood, Sweden, K. E. Eriksson.

 

 

Fig. 9. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, hymenium and basidia, CBS 316.75. a. hymenium with cystidia, 500 x ; b. branching pattern of basidiogenous hypha, 1100 x ; c. lateral basidium, 2000 x ; d-e. basidia with more than four sterigmata; d. 2800 x ; e. 3500 x ; f. basidium with six spores, maturing in two groups of three, 2500 x .

 

 

Discussion

 

     The teleomorph of S. pruinosum, Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burdsall (Fig. 9) was obtained in several strains on a Walseth medium (Gold and Cheng, 1979). It has been adequately described by Burdsall and Eslyn (1974) and illustrated by Eriksson et al. (1978) and need not be described here. CBS 316.75, however, [p. 21] displayed a remarkable and not earlier reported feature: the number of the sterigmata varied from 2-8, the majority being 5-6 (Fig. 9d-e). The distance from the sterigmata to the axis of the basidium and to each other is not always similar, which makes such basidia look like a Spiniger anamorph (Fig. 9e). The basidiospores, however, are asymmetrical and forcibly discharged. Sometimes they do not mature simultaneously, but in two groups.

     Among the species of Sporotrichum, S. pruinosum is the most variable. Macroscopically the colonies are more or less farinaceous, but they vary from a completely white mat to a transparent colony with some local mealy white spots. CBS 129.27 and CBS 363.65 deviate somewhat; colonies of these strains tend to be short woolly, due to the relatively low production of conidia.

     Blastoconidial size and shape also vary considerably, as summarized in table 2. Typical isolates have globose to broadly ellipsoidal blastoconidia, few solitary blastoconidia and few arthroconidia. After prolonged maintenance in culture some changes may occur; the total number of conidia as well as the number of conidia per conidiophore may decrease and that of arthroconidia, solitary blastoconidia and chlamydospores increases. Atypical strains, such as CBS 129.27 and CBS 363.65, only rarely display branched conidiophores.

     In the original description, Gilman and Abbott (1927) described the mat as "dusty" or "powdery" and the conidiophores as "freely branched". The conidial shape was originally described as oval or lemon-shaped and the figure (reproduced here as Fig. 6f) showed a rather typical conidiophore. Nowadays the type strain (CBS 129.27) is atypical as is the similar CBS 363.65. The latter strain is an authentic strain of Emmonsia ciferrina, a species for which the original description agrees with tbe above description of S. pruinosum. The degeneration may have been caused or hastened by a minute bacterium, which was not detectable in malt-peptone solution or bright-field microscopy (there is always fine encrusting material present), but was apparent when studied with fluorescence techniques. It was not present in the other strains studied. The isolate was purified with antibiotics, but did not revert to its original condition.

 

Table 2. Comparison of blastoconidial characters in various isolates of S. pruinosum.

 

Isolate

conidial shape

conidial dimensions (µm)

 

 

 

 

 

578.63

globose to broadly ellipsoidal

(5-)6-10.5(-12)

x (5 )5.5-9(-10)

255.65

globose to broadly ellipsoidal

(5-)6-10

x (5-)8(-8.5)

171.61

subglobose to broadly ellipsoidal

(5-)6-10(-l1.5)

x (4.2-)5-8(-8.5)

671.71

subglobose to broadly ellipsoidal

(5-)6-9.5(-11)

x (4-)4.5-7.5(-9)

363.65

subglobose to broadly ellipsoidal

(5-)5.5-9(-10)

x (4-7.5(-9)

316.75

ellipsoidal

(5-)6-9(-10.5

x (4-)5-7.5(-8.5)

129.27

ellipsoidal to pyriform

(5)6.5-9

x (4.5-)5- 6.5(-8)

481.73

ellipsoidal

(5)5.5-8

x (3.5-)4-5.5(- 6.5)

104.82

ellipsoidal and

6.5-9

x 5-7

 

narrowly ellipsoidal to subcylindrical

5-8(-9)

x (3)3.5-4.5(--5.5)

283.71

ellipsoidal and

6-9

x 5-7.5

 

narrowly ellipsoidal to subcylindrical

(5)5.5-9(-10.5)

x (3-)3.5-4.5

[p. 22]

 

 

 

 

 

     The synonymy of S. pruinosum and S. pulverulentum was recently debated. Burdsall and Eslyn (1974) considered the two species synonyms, whilst Stalpers (1978) distinguished them on the basis of conidium and chlamydospore size. The present study which included the examination of additional strains, showed the variability to be greater than I (1978) had realized, thus Burdsall and Eslyn’s concept is accepted here. Meanwhile Burdsall (1981) in a study on the type strains of S. pruinosum and S. pulverulentum, concluded that they were not conspecific. His main argument was that S. pruinosum was not strongly ligninolytic since it did not degrade 14C-labelled synthetic lignin-like compounds, while S. pulverulenlum and other strains of Phanerochaete chrysosporium did. Whatever may be the sensitivity of this method, some literature data indicate a variable pattern of lignin degradation in Ph. chrysosporium. Rosenberg (1980) found, that his strain ME 446 did not degrade lignin in inoculated diffusion cultures, contrary to other Ph. chrysosporium isolates. It did, however, degrade lignin on agar plates. This strain was also studied by Burdsall, who considered it a typical Ph. chrysosporium. The present results of the α-naphthol tests (table 3) also indicate that this character is not stable in S. pruinosum and should not be used for species delimitation.

     Besides the inability to degrade lignin, Burdsall listed four morphological characters (considered by him as rather minor) to distinguish S. pruinosum from S. pulverulentum. These are listed below with some comments.

1. The hyphae of S. pruinosum become only slightly thick-walled, while those of S. pulverulentum have walls up to 4 µm thick.

     Although the number of thick-walled hyphae and the degree of wall thickness are higher in S. pulverulentum, S. pruinosum also forms such structures (Fig. 6k), especially on ChA.

2. The hyphae of S. pulverulentum are irregularly swollen and the swellings often become large, elongate, intercalary chlamydospores. In S. pruinosum these swellings and chlamydospores are less frequent and usually smaller and ellipsoidal.

     Within S. pulverulentum sensu Burdsall the number of swellings and the shape and size of the chlamydospores are very variable. In some strains more or less globose, thick-walled chlamydospores up to 60 µm diam occur, while in others they hardly surpass 15 µm diam. In CBS 129.27 globose chlamydospores were found up to 22 µm diam. Burdsall’s drawings suggest that he looked at structures transitional between chlamydospores and arthroconidia which have become thick-walled. Such structures can be found in all isolates.

3. S. pruinosum has subglobose to nearly pyriform arthroconidia, while those of S. pulverulentum are sphaeropedunculate.

     Burdsall was probably referring to blastoconidia rather than arthroconidia and confused the terms, as sphaeropedunculate blastoconidia are present in the type strain of S. pruinosum, but not or only rarely so in S. pulverulentum; this is also clear from his drawings. As mentioned before, the type strain of S. pruinosum only rarely produces branched conidiophores. The conidia from these conidiophores, and terminal conidia from unbranched conidiogenous hyphae, are often sphaeropedunculate, as the septa are generally formed somewhat below the swelling. In the original description neither sphaeropedunculate conidia nor arthroconidia are mentioned. [p. 23]

4. S. pruinosum has swollen hyphal ends, up to 10-15 µm diam, which are absent in S. pulverulentum.

     This seems to be related to the foregoing character. A conidiophore of CBS 129.27 often produces only one conidium, which may be somewhat larger than average. It seems, that sometimes no septum is formed close to the swelling and that no secession takes place, resulting in capitate hyphae. They are very rarely found in typical strains.

     Burdsall obtained subcultures of the type strain of S. pruinosum from four different culture collections and found them similar. By doing so, he suggested that degeneration of this strain is unlikely, because that would have implied parallel degeneration in four different collections, where the strains have been kept under different conditions. The history of their maintenance in those collections is shown in Diagram 1. It is clear, that from 1927 to 1949 there has been no separate development, as the original ATCC strain was replaced in 1978 by the CMI strain, which came from CBS.

     Finally, there might be a practical reason to maintain the epithet "pulverulentum" because it has been used in many applied studies, especially in Sweden. However, even if S. pruinosum could be accepted as a distinct species, there are several other names available, which antedate S. pulverulentum, viz. Emmonsia brasiliensis and E. ciferrina.

     Although the arguments in favour of the synonymy of S. pulverulentum and S. pruinosum are more convincing than those against it, the matter is not solved. Preliminary results of exo-antigen tests seem to indicate a difference. The use of the teleomorphic name Phanerochaete chrysosporium in applied studies is preferable as no controversies are connected with that name.

     The reaction with α-naphthol is variable (Table 3); it varies from a distinct open ring to no reaction at all, while some strains show a faintly coloured spot; these reactions are normally read as negative, but in this discussion they are noteworthy. Phanerochaete chrysosporium causes a white rot and thus is able to produce phenoloxidases. however, these enzymes could neither be detected with the Bavendamm tests (gallic and tannic acid agar) nor with syringaldazine or gum guaiac (Burdsall & Eslyn, 1974).

Diagram l. Origin and history of the type strain of Sporotrichum pruinosum in various culture collections. [p. 23]

 

Table 3. Reaction of the various strains of S. pruinosum with a-naphthol. - = negative; + = faint discoloration; O = open ring.

 

Isolate

3 h

24 h

72h

 

 

 

 

104.82

+

0

0

316.75

+

0

0

283.71

+

0

0

578.63

-

+

0

255.65

-

+

0

171.61

-

-

+

129.27

-

-

+/-

481.73

-

-

+/-

363.65

-

-

+/-

671.71

-

-

+/-

 

     Rypácek (1966) distinguished two types of white rot fungi: those which degrade lignin first and those which start with cellulose. This corresponds with the grouping of Ander and Eriksson (1977), who classified the white rot fungi after the production of endo-glucanase and phenoloxidase. Sporotrichum belongs in Rypácek’s second group and produces much endo-glucanase and relatively little phenoloxidase.

     The thermotolerant S. pruinosum (as S. pulverulentum or Ph. chrysosporium) has been the subject of many physiological studies (Kirk et al., 1978, 1980). Eriksson (1978) listed three types of hydrolytic enzymes for the degradation of cellulose: endo-1,4-ß-glucanase, exo-1,4-ß-glucanase and 1,4-ß-glucosidase. The species is used as a model for the biodegradation of lignin and the production of protein on lignocellulosic waste material (single-cell protein).

     Keyser et al. (1978) found, that ligninolytic (phenoloxydase) activity was not dependent on the presence of lignin, but on nitrogen. Essential protein components of the ligninolytic system are synthesized as part of a series of physiological events that are initiated by nutrient nitrogen starvation. A 100% oxygen atmosphere stimulates the ligninolytic activity and agitation suppresses it. Eriksson et al. (1980) also used cellulase-less mutants in their studies.

     The nutritional value of S. pruinosum for mammals (rats, pigs and sheep) was investigated by Thomke et al. (1980); the nutritive value was more satisfactory for sheep than for monogastric species, due to the cell wall structure of S. pruinosum. Ek and Eriksson (1980) developed a laboratory model for water purification and protein production on lignocellulosic waste waters, and Yang et al. (1980) for protein production on mechanical pulps of both angiospermous (Alnus) and gymnospermous (Tsuga) wood.

S. pruinosum has occasionally been reported as a human pathogen (Batista et al., 1963); it was isolated from lungs and caused adiaspiromycosis. [p. 25]

 

 

Sporotrichum versisporum (Lloyd) Stalpers comb. nov. - Figs 10-11.

     Ptychogaster aurantiacus Pat. - Revue mycol. 7: 28. 1885 [non Sporotrichum aurantiacum (Bull. : Fr.) Fr. 1832 nec S. aurantiacum Grev. 1822] = Ceriomyces aurantiacus (Pat.) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 6: 386. 1888 = Ceriomyces sulfureus de Seynes - Bull. Soc. bot. Fr. 37: 111. 1890 (name change) [non Sporotrichum sulphureum Grev. 1822].

     Calvatia versispora Lloyd - Mycol. Writ. 4, letter 57: 7. 1915 (basionym, as "versipora ") = Ptychogaster versisporus (Lloyd) Lloyd - Mycol Writ. 6: 1005. 1920 = Laetiporus versisporus (Lloyd) Imazeki - Bull. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 6: 88. 1943.

     Ceriomyces neumannii Bres. - Annls mycol. 18: 41. 1920.

     Ptychogaster aureus Lloyd - Mycol. Writ. 6: 1063. 1921 (nomen nudum).

 

Teleomorph: Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull. : Fr.) Bond. & Sing.

 

     Growth on ChA 35-60 mm radius in 14 days; on MEA 0-20 mm radius in 14 days. Cardinal temperatures: minimum 9°C, optimum 28-30°C, maximum 34-35°C. Advancing zone appressed to raised, even, hyphae distant. Colony generally appressed at the margin, tufts of aerial mycelium present in the central parts; colony later becoming floccose to thin cottony, agar remaining visible between the hyphae. After 3-4 weeks becoming farinaceous or plumose-farinaceous. Colony at first cream-coloured, becoming Pale Ochraceous Buff (5A2) to Warm Buff (4A4), or Pale Orange Yellow (5A4), Pale Ochraceous Salmon (5A3) or Ochraceous Buff (5A5, 5B4). No reaction with KOH. Reverse unchanged. Reaction with α-naphthol and p-cresol negative. Odour insignificant.

 

 

Fig. 10. Sporotrichum versisporum. a-d. CBS 592.82; a-c. conidiophores; d. chlamydospores; e-h. CBS 498.76; e. conidiophore; f. arthroconidia; g. blastoconidia; h. chlamydospores; i. CBS 388.61, blastoconidia; j-k. CBS 608.74;j. blastoconidia; h. chlamydospores. Bar represents 10 µm. [p. 26]

 

 

Fig. 11. Sporotrichum versisporum, conidiogenous structures. a-b. CBS 489.76,     young conidiophores; c-b. CBS 343.69, mature conidiophores; c. 550 x ; d. 1100 x ; e-f. CBS 489.76, conidia and conidiophores; e. 1000 x ; e. 4200 x .[p. 27]

 

     Marginal hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, 2.5-8(-10) µm wide, lacking clamps, often with somewhat granular contents. Cells multinucleate. Branching is often inequivalent with much wider parent hyphae. Irregular swellings often present. Crystals typically present, bipyramidal to prismatic.

     Aerial hyphae hyaline, thin- to somewhat thick-walled, 3-6 µm wide, without clamps. Conidiophores 2.5-4 µm wide, sometimes arising from a much wider hypha, branched, each branch forming a terminal blastoconidium. Branching racemose to nearly sympodial. Conidia salmon when mature, thin- to somewhat thick-walled (up to 1.5 µm), subglobose to ellipsoidal or ovoidal, (4-)6-10(-12) x (4-)5-8 µm, broadly attached. Arthroconidia present, often originating from old conidiophores, cylindrical or irregular, thin-walled, 2.5-3.5 µm wide. Chlamydospores present, terminal or intercalary, subglobose to ellipsoidal, thickwalled (up to 2 µm), 10-21 x (7.5-)9-16 µm.

     Submerged hyphae hyaline, thin- to thick-walled, 2.5-12 µm wide, often constricted at the septa. Chlamydospores present, as above.

     Nuclear behaviour: cells of young radiating mycelium multinucleate, those of aerial mycelium multinucleate, conidia with 2-8 nuclei.

 

Species code (Stalpers, 1978): (7), (8), (9), 11, 13, 14, 18, 19, (21), (22), 23, 31, (32), 35, 48, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, (78), 80, (82), 83, 84, 85, 87, 87, (89), (90), 96.

 

Species code (Nobles, 1965): 1, 6, (7), (25), (26), 33, 34, 35, (36), (37), 38, 43-44, 54, 55.

 

On the natural substrate, conidia are found in the mycelium in the wood, where they develop in wood vessels, within or rarely on relatively thick fertile basidiomata, where they are found in the upper layers close to the point of attachment to the substrate (conidia are usually absent in flattened basidiomata) or in tube-less, more or less tuberous conidiomata (de Seynes, 1888). Such conidiomata can be considered as abortive basidiomata. Both blastoconidia and chlamydospores are found, and distinction between them after maturation is often not possible.

     Both de Seynes (1888) and Jahn (1970) described the development of the tuberous conidiomata. I have only seen mature specimens, but as no recent English description exists and both publications are not generally available, it seems useful to summarize these descriptions here.

     Young conidiomata are tuberous and Bovista-like to irregularly console-shaped with blunt margins and an upper surface which is smooth to coarsely warted or knotted. Pores are absent or rarely indicated as pits. The conidiomata are 3-7 cm diam and 2-5 cm thick, pale yellow to sulphur yellow, sometimes with reddish exudation drops. Later the colour changes to yellowish brown and [p. 28] finally becomes cinnamon-brown. Young conidiomata have a texture which is comparable to that of young basidiomata, but mature ones become pulverulent and consist of a brown mass of globose to ellipsoidal conidia and chlamydospores, 7.5-20 x 6-15 µm and thick-walled pieces of hyphae.

 

     The teleomorph of S. versisporum is the well-known Laetiporus sulphureus Bull. : Fr.) Bond. & Sing. (Domański et al. 1967; Ryvarden, 1978; Overholts, 1953). It is not described here.

 

Material examined

 

Living strains:

CBS 133.23, Netherlands, K. B. Boedijn.

CBS 388.61 = ATCC 36733, Austria, K. Lohwag.

CBS 343.69, from Prunus, Horst (L), Netherlands, P. J. Bels.

CBS 608.74, Horst, Netherlands, P. H. van der Pol.

CBS 489.76, from wood decay, Tottori, Japan, N. Hiratsuka (received as Laetiporus versisporus).

CBS 575.81, from Fagus sylvatica, Eupen, Belgium, J. A. Stalpers.

CBS 106.82, from Pirus, Folimanka, Praha, Czechoslovakia, M. Semerdzievá.

CBS 107.82, from Picea, Ovcarna, Moravia, Czechoslovakia, M. Semerdzievá.

CBS 108.82, from Robinia, Olomouc, Moravia, Czechoslovakia, M. Semerdzievá.

CBS 592.82, from Quercus robur, estate Groeneveld near Baarn, Netherlands, J. A. Stalpers.

 

Herbarium specimens of the anamorph: Harmand, Tokyo, Japan (PC, ex herb. Patouillard), as Ptychogaster aurantiacus; Lloyd 6249, type of Calvatia versispora, J. Umemura, near Nagoya, Japan (BPI); Lloyd 19996, type of Ptychogaster aureus, J.T. Paul, Australia (BPI); Lloyd 20674, S. Matzuzawa, Mt. Mikuma, prov. Awaji, Japan (BPI); Lloyd 20681, J. Umemura, Nagoya, Japan (BPI); Lloyd 20682, A. Yasuda, Sendai, Japan (BPI); Neuman, type of Ceriomyces neumanii, from Quercus, Onedda County, Wisconsin, U.S.A. (S).

 

Discussion

 

     Sporotrichum versisporum was originally described by Lloyd (1915) as Calvatin versipora, but later he used the epithet "versispora", referring to the original epithet as "an original blunder". The Code allows the correction of printing errors and thus the epithet "versispora" is used here.

     As early as 1888 de Seynes noted that a mature conidioma could be misinterpreted as a Lycoperdon with spores and capillitium threads and that was exactly what Lloyd did when he described Calvatia versispora. Despite Lloyd’s classification of the specimen in a teleomorphic genus, it is obviously an anamorph. According to Wakefield (in Lloyd, 1916) "none of the spores seem to have a definite, regular apiculus such as one gets in many Lycoperdons, but some of them appear to have a blunt stalk". In a discussion on another specimen, Yasuda (in Lloyd, 1920) considered it the Ptychogaster form of a polypore, which was accepted by Lloyd. Lloyd’s Fig. 1840 (Lloyd, 1920) shows a characteristic specimen of Laetiporus sulpbureus. In 1921 Lloyd also returned to his original view of Calvatia (with question mark) for the latter specimen, because of the presence of "a definite peridium" and "capillitium threads", despite the presence of "pore-like pits". [p. 29]

 

 

Taxonomic relationships of the teleomorphs

 

     The teleomorphs of the three species of Sporotrichum have been placed in three different genera, viz. Pycnoporellus, Laetiporus and Phanerochaete. Of these, Pycnoporellus and Laetiporus have been considered to be closely related (Niemelä, 1980), but Phanerochaete has never been compared with these genera, no doubt because its species are not poroid. Nevertheless there are striking analogies.

     Phanerochaete raduloides J. Erikss. & Ryv., a species well described by Eriksson et al. (1978), is very close to Pycnoporellus. This species is ceraceous with a tuberculate to dentate, yellow to orange-red hymenial surface. The subicular hyphae are partly thick-walled and have "dense and numerous short branches, functioning as binding hyphae". The hyphae are septate with no or rarely a few clamps on the basal hyphae. Cystidia, basidia and spores are as in Pycnoporellus. The reaction with KOH is unknown, but in Phanerochaete a reddish discoloration with KOH occurs. Moreover, all species of Phanerochaete have multinucleate cells, a rather loose subiculum and often a weak laccase reaction. Like in Pycnoporellus clamps are either completely absent or only scarcely present on the subicular hyphae; in Phanerochaete they may also be verticillate, a phenomenon unknown in Pycnoporellus. Phanerochaete raduloides would have been a good Pycnoporellus if the raduloid teeth had been more concrescent as in Pycnoporellus alboluteus (Ellis & Everh.) Kotlába & Pouzar.

There seems to be a continuous range from Phanerochaete to Pycnoporellus to Laetiporus and any line drawn between the three genera is bound to be artificial.

 

 

Disporotrichum Stalpers gen. nov.

 

     Hyphae hyalinae, tenui- vel crassi-tunicatae, 2.5-12 µm latae, multinucleatae. Fibulae absentes vel rarae, interdum verticillatae. Conidiophora simplicia vel ramosa, l-6 conidia ferentia. Primum conidium terminale, sequentia sub primo formata, irregulariter vel modo sympodiali. conidia late adnexa, ellipsoidea, acervata, laete colorata, tenuia vel modice crassi-tunicata, multinucleata. Laccasis et tyrosinasis absentes. Teleomorphosis verisimile ad Basidiomycetes pertinens.

 

Species typica: Sporotrichum dimorphosporum v. Arx.

 

     Hyphae hyaline, thin- to thick-walled, 2.5-12 µm wide, multinucleate. Clamps absent or when present scattered and only on the advancing hyphae, sometimes in whorls. Conidiophores bearing 1-6 conidia. First conidium terminal, the others formed below the first one, randomly or in a more or less sympodial order, directly on the conidiophore or on short side-branches. conidia broadly attached, ellipsoidal, pinkish in mass, thin- to slightly thick-walled, multinucleate. Laccase and tyrosinase absent. Basidiomycetes with unknown teleomorph.

 

Type species: Sporotrichum dimorphosporum v. Arx.

 

     Disporotrichum differs from Sporotrichum in having conidia which lack a stalk [p. 30] or the stalk is hardly noticeable, a second type of blastoconidia and verticillate clamps. There is only one species known.

 

 

Disporotrichum dimorphosporum (v. Arx) Stalpers comb. nov. - Figs 12-13.

 

     Sporotrichum dimorphosporum v. Arx - Persoonia 6: 181. 1971 (basionym).

     Chrysosporium dimorphum Matsushima - Icones Microfungorum a Matsushima lectorum, p. 23. 1975.

 

     Growth on MEA 40-70 mm radius in 14 days, on ChA 50-70 mm radius in 11-14 days. Cardinal temperatures: minimum 8°C, optimum 30-32°C, maximum 40°C. Advancing zone appressed, even to slightly bayed, hyphae distant to rather dense. Colony appressed at the margin, sometimes becoming slightly downy or immediately forming a soft, wrinkled granular crust, which may be overrun by a few hyphae. Colonies on MEA at first Shell Pink to Vinaceous Buff (8A2-6B2, 7B2), crust pinkish Cinnamon to Cinnamon or Ochraceous Tawny (6B4-5, 6C5-6, 7C6); On ChA Vinaceous Buff to Tawny (6-7B3) or Ferrugineous (6-7D6). In some strains the crust is not or hardly formed and then the mycelium is mealy to short woolly, Pale Grayish Vinaceous to Vinaceous Buff (12A2, 6-7B2) becoming Wood Brown to Fawn Color (7C3-5). No reaction with KOH. Reverse unchanged. Reaction with α-naphthol negative (rarely an open ring is seen after one day), reaction with p-cresol negative. Odour insignificant.

     Marginal hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, (2.5-)3-8(-12) µm wide, septate, without clamps, or on relatively wide hyphae occasionally with 1-4 clamps per septum. Clamps long (length: width ratio more than 2) and diameter of anastomosing hypha considerably smaller than that of the parent hypha. Some of these clamps are false; they do not anastomose and may grow out to form a hypha. Many hyphae are irregular in outline with swellings or knob-like protuberances and side-branches (Fig. 121). The hyphal contents are often granular, except in many straight hyphae. Inequivalent branching occurs, but is not dominant. Crystals absent.

            Aerial hyphae hyaline, thin- to slightly thick-walled, 3-6 µm wide, without clamps, not encrusted. Two types of blastoconidia present. One formed singly or typically in clusters of three to six conidia. First terminal conidium narrowly ellipsoidal, the others, which are smaller and more broadly ellipsoidal, are formed below the first one randomly or more or less sympodially. conidia not or shortly stalked, broadly and often obliquely attached, forming the wrinkled crust. Conidia pinkish in mass, thin- to slightly thick-walled, (11-)13-24(-28) x 8-13 µm, when young filled with granular material, after maturation often seemingly empty and somewhat collapsed. Rarely the primary blastoconidia become two-celled. The second type of blastoconidium is not always present. These conidia arise on denticulate, sympodially elongating conidiogenous cells. They are hyaline, thin-walled, cylindrical or apically slightly swollen and rounded, broadly attached, 5.5-15(-20) x 1.4-2.5(-3) µm. Crystals often present, hyaline, bipyramidal and prismatic. [p.31]

 

 

 

Fig. 12. Disporotrichum dimorphosporum. a-c. CBS 471.82; a-b. conidiophores; c. blastoconidia; d-e. CBS 167.79; d. conidia; e. conidiophores; f-g. CBS 470.82; f. conidiophores with cylindrical conidia; g. conidiophore with both ellipsoidal and cylindrical conidia; h-k. CBS 419.70; h. blastoconidia; i-k. verticillate clamps, some not anastomising; 1. CBS 470.82, hypha with knob-like protuberances (?old conidiophore). Bar represents 10 µm. [p. 32]

 

 

Fig. 13. Disporotrichum dimorphosporum, conidia and conidiophores. a-d. CBS 419.70; a. 1300 x ; b. 2000 x; c-d. 2800 x.

 

     Submerged hyphae hyaline, thin- to thick-walled, 2.5-9(-12) µm wide, walls up to 4 µm thick. Cells multinucleate.

     Nuclear distribution: cells of all hyphae multinucleate, ellipsoidal blastoconidia with 4-10 nuclei, cylindrical blastoconidia with 2-4(-8) nuclei.

 

Species code (Stalpers, 1978): (6), (7), 11, 13, (14), (15), 17, 18, (22), 28, (31), 33, (34), (39), (40), (41), 44, 48, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 80, 86, (87), 91, 96, 100.

 

Species code (Nobles, 1965): 1, (5), (6), 25, 26, 33, (36), (37), 38, 42-43, 56. [p. 33]

 

Material examined

 

Living strains:

CBS 419.70, type strain of Sporotrichum dimorphosporum, from potato meal, Groningen, Netherlands, G. A. Gerritsen.

CBS 610.71 = LY 4322), J. Boidin.

CBS 484.76 = QM 806 = ATCC 24562 = CMI 155711, U.S.A., E. G. Simmons.

CBS 167.79, type strain of Chrysosporium dimorphum, from medicinary tablet made of macerated grass, Japan, A. Matsushima.

CBS 470.82, sent for identification, France.

CBS 471.82, air contaminant, Baarn, Netherlands, J. A. Stalpers.

 

Discussion

 

Disporotrichum dimorphosporum is well known as a strong producer of exol-1,3-ß-glucosidase and ß-D-1,3-glucanase (Reese and Mandels, 1959, as QM 806), while recently a new enzyme, endo-N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase, has been described from it by Bouquelet et al. (1980). Although the species, which grows well at 37°C, has once been isolated from horse skin, nothing is known about its pathogenicity. [p.34]

 

 

Check-list of epithets used in combination with Sporotrichum

 

S. abietinum (Pers.) Link 1809

 

     Dematium abietinum Pers. - Tent. Disp. meth. Fung., p. 41. 1797 = Sporotrichum abietinum (Pers.) Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 13. 1809 = Cladosporium abietinum (Pers.) Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 7:37. 1816.

 

     The type specimen (L) contains an alga, as already stated by Fries (1832); J. Th. Koster (in Hughes, 1958) identified the species as Trentepohlia abietina (Flotow) Hansgirg.

 

S. acuminatum Lurie 1951

     Sporotrichum acuminatum Lurie - Mycologia 43: 120. 1951. Nomen nudum.

 

     The species was incidentally mentioned by Lurie (1951). De Hoog (1974) placed it in the synonymy of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins.

 

S. aeruginosum (Pers.) Pers. 1822

 

     Rhacodium aeruginosum Pers. - Obs. mycol. 2: 19. 1799 = Sporotrichum aeruginosum (Pers.) Pers. Mycol. - Eur. 1: 79.

 

     Nomen dubium. The type specimen (L) contains mycelium with swellings and conidia comparable to those of Aspergillus. Unidentifiable basidiospores are also present. Fries (1832) mentioned it in the index in italics with "(Mycelium!)" added.

 

S. aeruginosum Schw. 1832

 

     Sporotrichum aeruginosum Schw. - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. 4 (N.S.): 173. 1832 (" 1831 ") [non Sporotrichum aeruginosum (Pers.) Pers. 1822].

    

     The type material (PH) contains well developed Byssocorticium atrovirens (Fr. : Fr.) Bond. & Sing. (= Thelephora atrovirens Fr. : Fr.).

 

S. aeruginosum Schw. var. microsporum P. Karst. 1905

 

     Sporotrichum aeruginosum Schw. var. microsporum P. Karst. - Acta Soc. Fauna Flora ferm. 37: 16. 1905.

 

Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in H. The original diagnosis does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. affine Gruby apud Cattaneo & Oliva 1888

 

S. affine Gruby apud Cattaneo & Oliva - Arch. trienn. Lab. bot. crittog. Pavia 5: 126. 1888. Nomen nudum.

 

     Mentioned only as synonym of Oidium albicans Robin (= Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout) by Cattaneo and Oliva (Müller, 1964a). [p. 35]

 

S. agaricinum Link 1818

 

     Sporotrichum agaricinum Link Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 170. 1818 = Monosporium agaricinum (Link) Bon. 1851 - Handb. allg. Mykol., p. 95.

 

     Persoon (1822) did not consider it a fungus, but Gams and Hoozemans (1970) regarded it a synonym of Cladobotryum verticillatum (Link : Fr.) Hughes; their identification was based on Bonorden’s (1851) drawing. The type material in both B and L contains only Aspergillus glaucus Link : Fr. (teleomorph: Eurotium herbariorum (Wiggers : Fr.) Link, which, however, often occurs as a herbarium contaminant.

 

S. album Petch 1926

 

     Sporotrichum album Petch - Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 11: 262. 1926 = Sporothrix alba (Petch) de Hoog - Stud. Mycol. 7: 22. 1974.

 

     The type material (K) is a good species of Sporothrix, which was described in detail by de Hoog (1974).

 

S. allescheri Sacc. & Sydow 1899

 

     Sporotrichum allescheri Sacc. & Sydow - Syll. Fung. 14: 1051. 1899.

 

     Nomen novum for Sporotrichum obducens Allescher 1895 [non S. obducens Link 1818].

 

S. alutaceum Schw. 1832

 

     S. alutaceum Schw - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. 4 (N.S.): 272.1832 ("1831").

 

     Nomen dubium. The type material (PH) contains loosely interwoven, thickwalled hyphae, up to 22 µm wide. They probably belong to a species of Botryobasidium, possibly B. laeve (J. Erikss.) Parm., but not Botryobasidium alutaceum Boidin. In addition various kinds of conidia are present, but these do not originate from the Botryobasidium mycelium.

 

S. ambiguum P. Karst. 1896

 

     Sporotrichum ambiguum P. Karst. – Hedwigia 35: 48. 1896.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type specimen not seen, not in H. The description does not give a clue to the identity of the species.

 

S. amenti P. Karst. 1892

 

     Sporotrichum amenti P. Karst - Hedwigia 31: 296. 1892.

 

     The type material (H) contains Cylindrocarpon heteronema (Berk. & Br.) Wollenweber and fits the description and figure of Wollenweber (1928) exactly. Wollenweber’s concept was referred to as "deviating" by Booth (1966), but Wollenweber explicitly refers to original material of Berkeley. [p. 36]

 

S. ampelinum Thüm. & Passer. 1878

 

     Sporotrichum ampelinum Thüm. & Passer. apud Thüm - Die Pilze des Weinstocks, p. 43.1878.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type material probably not extant, not in B. The original description and figure do not allow a positive identification, but suggest a species of Aspergillus or Penicillium.

 

S. anceps Sacc. & Ellis 1882

 

     Sporotrichum anceps Sacc. & Ellis apud Sacc. - Michelia 2: 576. 1882 = Rhinocladiclla anceps (Sacc. & Ellis) Hughes - Can. J. Bot. 36: 801. 1958 = Ramichloridium anceps (Sacc. & Ellis) de Hoog - Stud. Mycol. 15: 77. 1977.

 

     The type material (PAD) is a species of Ramichloridium, transferred and described in detail by de Hoog (1977).

 

S. anglicum Castellani 1937

 

     Sporotrichum anglicum Castellani - J. trop. Med. Hyg. 40: 313. 1937.

 

     According to Müller (1964a) and Kreger-van Rij in Lodder (1970), this is a synonym of Trichosporon variabile (Lindner) Delitsch (teleomorph: Hyphopichia burtonii (Boidin et al.) von Arx & van der Walt).

 

S. antarcticum Speg. 1910

     Sporotrichum antarcticum Speg. - An. Mus. nac. Hist. nat. B. Aires 20: 416. 1910 = Acremonium antarcticum (Speg.) D. Hawksw - Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Bot.) 6: 193. 1979.

 

     The type specimen (LPS) is an Acremonium which was well described by Hawksworth (1979).

 

S. anthochroum (Pers. : Fr.) Pers. 1822

 

     Thelephora anthochroa Pers. - Syn. meth. Fung., p. 576. 1801 = Sporotrichum anthochroum (Pers.) Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 79. 1822 = Thelephora anthochroa (Pers. : Fr.) Fr. - Elenchus Fung. 1: 207. 1828.

 

Nomen dubium. The type material (L) does not contain an identifiable fungus and the description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. anthophilum Peck 1906

 

     Sporotrichum anthophilum Peck - Bull. N. Y. St. Mus. 105: 28. 1906.

 

     According to Stewart and Hogkiss (1908) and Wollenweber and Reinking (1935), this is a synonym of Fusarium poae (Peck) Wollenweber. The type material (NYS) contains microconidia of this species. The epithet should not be confused with Fusarium anthophilum (A. Braun) Wollenweber. [p. 37]

 

S. arabicum Massee 1896

 

     Sporotrichum arabicum Massee - J. Bot., Lond. 34: 153. 1896.

 

     Nomen dubium. The type materal (K) is very rich in conidia, but too old to allow a recognition of the conidiogenous structures. According to Samson (pers. comm.), it might be Wardomyces ovalis W. Gams, but Doratomyces cannot be excluded. Morton and Smith (1963) considered it the Scopulariopsis anamorph of Microascus cinereus (Emile-Weil & Gaudin) Curzi.

 

S. aranearum Cavara 1896

 

     Sporotrichum aranearum Cavara - Fung. Longob. exsicc. 5, fast. 240. 1896 = Acremonium tenuipes Petch - Trans. Br. mycol. Soc 21: 64. 1937 [non A. aranearum Petch 1931 = Engyodontium aranearum (Cavara) W. Gams et al. (1984, Persoonia 12(2), in press)].

 

     The isotype specimen (B) contains a species of Engyodontium. Muller (1964a) described a species of Tritirachium under this epithet, probably T. hydnicola (Peck) Hughes.

 

S. araneae (Brunaud) Sartory 1922

     Sporotrichum minutulum Speg. var. araneae Brunaud - J. Hist. nat. Bordeaux SudOuest 2, 7: 246. 1887 = Sporotrichum araneae (Brunaud) Sartory - Champignons parasitaires sur l’homme et les animaux. 1922 (not seen, cited from Müller, 1964a).

    

     Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant. The description suggests Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill.

 

S. arthrinioides Thüm.

 

     S. arthrinioides Thüm. - Contr. Fungi Litor. nr. 37 (not seen, cited from Saccardo, 1886).

 

     Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant. The diagnosis does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. asteroides Splendore 1908

 

     Sporotrichum asteroides Splendore - Revta Soc. cient. S. Paulo 3: 62. 1908 = Sporotrichum beurmannii Matruchot & Ramond var. asteroiden (Splendore) de Beurmann & Gougerot - Les Sporotrichoses, p. 179. 1912 (Nomen provisorium). = Rhinocladium asteroides (Splendore) Verdun - Précis Parasitol., ed. 2, p. 678. 1913 = Sporothrix asteroides (Splendore) J. Davis - J. infect. Dis. 12: 435. 1913 = Rhinocladium beurmannii (Matruchot & Ramond) Vuill. var. asteroides (Splendore) Vuill. apud C.W. Dodge - Medical Mycology p. 802. 1935 = Rhinotrichum asteroides (Splendore) C.W. Dodge (as "Verdun") - Medical Mycology, p. 802. 1935.

 

     This is a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins. for a detailed discussion see de Hoog (1974).

 

S. atropurpureum Peck 1913

 

     S. atropurpureum Peck - Bull. N. Y. St. Mus. 167: 48. 1913. [p. 38]

 

     The type material (NYS) contains the microconidial state of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (= Oospora verticillioides Sacc. 1882, better known as Fusarium moniliforme Sheld.).

 

S. audouinii (Gruby) Sacc. 1886

 

     Microsporum audouinii Gruby - C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 17: 301. 1843 = Sporotrichum audouinii (Gruby) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 101. 1886 = Sabouraudites audouinii (Gruby) Ota & Langeron - Annls Parasit. hum. comp. 1: 327. 1923 = Closteroaleurosporia audouinii (Gruby) Grigorakis - Annls Sci. nat. Bot., Sér. 10, 7: 412. 1925.

 

     The species is generally known under the name Microsporum audouinii. The teleomorph has been described by Benedek (1961) under the name Veronaia audouinii (Gruby) Benedek, but that combination was not validly published, because reference to the basionym was lacking. Moreover, it would not be correct to transfer this anamorph to the teleomorphic genus Veronaia (Art. 59 ICBN).

 

S. aurantiacum (Bull. : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

See p. 11.

 

S. aurantiacum Grev. 1822

 

     S. aurantiacum Grev. - Mem. Wernerian Soc. 4: 67. 1822 ("1821") [non S. aurantiacum (Bull. : Fr.) Fr. 1832].

 

     Nomen dubium. Type material probably lost, not in K or E. The diagnosis does not give a clue to its identity. This species was not considered by Fries (1832).

 

S. aureum (Pers. : Fr.) : Fr. 1832 .

 

     Trichoderma aureum Pers. - Syn. meth. Fung., p. 232. 1801 = Sporotrichum aureum (Pers. : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3:418. 1832.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not extant. The description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. aureum Link 1809

 

     Sporotrichum aureum Link - Mag. - Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin 3:13. 1809 [non Sporotrichum aureum (Pers. : Fr.) Fr. 1832].

 

     The type material (B) contains S. aurantiacum.

 

S. azureum Link 1809

 

     Sporotrichum azureum Link 1809 - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 13. 1809.

 

     The type material (B) contains well-developed Pulcherricium coeruleum (Schrad. : Fr.) Parm., as suspected by Fries (1832, index). [p. 39]

 

S. azureum Wright & von Arx 1973

 

Sporotrichum azureum Wright & von Arx apud von Arx - Persoonia 7: 127. 1973 [non S. azureum Link 1809].

 

     The species does not belong to Sporotrichum as defined here. It will be treated in a revision of Ptychogaster.

 

S. badium Link 1809

 

     Sporotrichum badium Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 12. 1809 = Alytosporium badium (Link) Steudel - Nomen cl. bot. p. 54. 1824 = Tomentella badia (Link) Stalpers - Revue Mycol. 29: 98. 1975 = Tomentellastrum badium (Link) M. J. Larsen - Nova Hedwigia 35: 5.1981.

 

     The type specimen (L) was described by Stalpers (1975). The correct place of the species is in Tomentella, where it is also known as T. atroviolacea Litsch.

 

S. beigelii (Küchenmeister & Rabenh.) Sacc. &Traverso 1911

 

     Pleurococcus beigelii Küchenmeister & Rabenh. apud Rabenh. - Hedwigia 6:49. 1867 = Sclerotium beigelianum (Küchenmeister & Rabenh.) Hallier - Parasitologische Untersuchungen, p. 75. 1868 = Zoogloea beigeliana (Küchenmeister & Rabenh.) Eberth - Zentbl. med. Wiss. 11: 307. 1873 = Chlamydatomus beigeli (Küchenmeister & Rabenh.) Trevisan - Rc. Ist. Lomb. Sci. Lett., Ser. 2, 12: 146. 1879 = Hyalococcus beigelii (Küchenmeister & Rabenh.) Schroet. - Kryptogamen-Flora von Schlesien 3: 152. 1886 = Micrococcus beigelii (Küchenmeister & Rabenh.) Migula - Das System der Bakterien 1: 193. 1900 = Trichosporon beigelii (Küchenmeister & Rabenh.) Vuill. - Archs Parasitol. 5: 59. 1902 (as "Trichosporum"). = Sporotrichum ?beigelii (Küchenmeister & Rabenh.) Sacc. & Traverso - Syll. Fung. 20: 871. 1911 = Geotrichum beigeli (Küchenmeister & Rabenh.) Coudert - Guide pratique de mycologie médicale, p. 233. 1955 (nomen provisorium).

    

     Trichosporon beigelii is the correct name for the type species of Trichosporon which is generally known as Trichosporon cutaneum (De Beurmann, Gougerot, & Vaucher) Ota.

 

S. beurmannii Matruchot & Ramond 1905

 

     Sporotrichum beurmannii Matruchot & Ramond - C. r. hebd. Séanc. Mém. Soc. Biol. 2: 380. 1905 = Trichosporum beurmannii (Matruchot & Ramond) Lutz & Splendore - Annali Ig. sper. 17: 581. 1907 (as "Trichosporium") = Rhinocladium beurmannii (Matruchot & Ramond) Vuifi. - Bull. Séanc. Soc. Sci. Nancy 11: 138. 1910 = Sporotrichum schenckii-beurmannii Greco var. beurmannii (Matruchot & Ramond) de Beurmann & Gougerot - Archs Parasit. 15: 39. 1911 = Sporotrichopsis(?) beurmannii (Matruchot & Ramond) Guéguen apud de Beurmann & Gougerot - Archs Parasitol. 15: 104. 1911 (generic name not validly published) = Sporothrix beurmannii (Matruchot & Ramond) Meyer & Aird - J. infect. Dis. 16: 399. 1915 = Rhinotrichum beurmannii (Matruchot & Ramond) Ota - J. Jap. Dermatol. Urol. 28: 4. 1928 = Sporotrichum schenckii (Hektoen & Perkins) de Beurmann & Gougerot var. beurmannii (Matruchot & Ramond) C. W. Dodge - Medical Mycology, p. 805. 1935.

 

     According to de Hoog (1974), this is a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins. [p. 40]

 

S. biparasiticum Bubák 1906

 

     Sporotrichum biparasiticum Bubák - Bull. Herb. Boissier, Sér. 2, 6: 486. 1906.

 

     Nomen dubium. The type specimen could not be traced. The species was described as a parasite of Fusarium sphaeriae Fuckel, noticeable by a reddish tint. It may have been merely the microconidial state of the Fusarium.

 

S. boletorum Ehrenb. 1818

 

     Sporotrichum boletorum Ehrenb. 1818 - Sylvae mycol. berol., p. 10. 1818 = Dactylium boletorum (Ehrenb.) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 190. 1886.

 

     Type material not seen, not in B. Fries (1832) considered it a synonym of Dactylium dendroides (Bull. : Fr.) Fr., which is Cladobotryum dendroides (Bull. Fr.) W. Gams & Hoozemans, the anamorph of Hypomyces rosellus (Alb. & Schw. : Fr.) Tul. (Gams and Hoozemans, 1970).

 

S. bolleanum Thüm.

 

     Sporotrichum bolleanum Thüm. - Contr. Funghi Litor. nr. 36 (not seen, cited from Saccardo (1886).

 

     The description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. bombacinum Link 1816

 

     Sporotrichum bombacinum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 36. 1816 = Athelia bombacina (Link) Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 85. 1822 = Sporotrichum bombacinum Link : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3 (index): 179. 1832.

 

     The type material (B) does not contain an identifiable fungus. The name is a nomen dubium, as also stated by Hughes (1958) and Jülich (1972). Jülich’s assumption that Athelia bombacina was not based on Link’s species is incorrect. The descriptions are nearly identical and Persoon refers to Link’s original description.

 

S. bombycina (Corda) Rabenh. 1844

 

     Capillaria bombycina Corda - Ic. Fung. 1: 10. 1839 = Sporotrichum bombycinum (Corda) Rabenh. - Deutschl. Krypt. Fl. 1: 79 (nr. 745). 1844.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in PRM. The original description does not give a clue to its identity, as also stated by Taylor (1970).

 

S. boulangerii Vuill. 1911

 

     Sporotrichum vellereum Sacc. & Speg. var. griseum Boulanger - Revue gén. Bot. 7: 97. 1895 [non S. griseum Link : Fr. 1809] = Sporotrichum boulangerii Vuill. - Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, Sér. 3, 12: 95. 1911.

 

     This is the Graphium anamorph of Petriella boulangeri Curzi (Barron et al., 1961), which initially may be mononematous. Boulanger identified it as [p. 41] G. eumorphum Sacc., which is possibly identical with G. fructicola (El. & Em.) Marchal (de Hoog, pers. comm.).

 

S. bronchiale Mont. 1858

 

     Sporotrichum bronchiale Mont. - Annls. Sci. nat., Bot., Sér. 2, 9: 150. 1858.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in L or PC. The original description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. brunaudii Nannizzi 1934

 

     Sporotrichum brunaudii Nannizzi - Tratt. Micopatol. umana 4: 436. 1934 = Sporotrichum parvulum Brunaud 1897 [non S. parvulum Passerini 1887].

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not seen. The description does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. brunneum Schenk 1850

 

     S. brunneum Schenk - Verh. phys. - med. Ges. Würzb. 1: 73. 1850 = Trichosporum brunneum (Schenk) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 294. 1886 (as "Trichosporium").

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in B.

 

S. bryophilum Pers. 1822

 

     Sporotrichum bryophilum Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 78. 1822 = Sporotrichum bryophilum Pers. : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3 (index): 179. 1832 = ?Botrytis bryophila (Pers : Fr.) Sacc. - Atti Ist. veneto Sci., Ser. 2, 6. 1884 (not seen, cited from Saccardo, 1886) = Tomentella bryophila (Pers : Fr.) M. J. Larsen - Mycologia Mem. 4: 51. 1974.

 

     The type material (L) contains a species of Tomentella, belonging to the complex of T. ramosissima (Berk. & Curt.) Wakef., T. violaceofusca (Sacc.) M. J. Larsen and probably also T. neobourdotii M. J. Larsen. Within this complex T. bryophila represents the oldest name.

 

S. byssinum Link 1824

 

     Sporotrichum byssinum Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 20. 1824.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type specimen not in B or L. According to Fries (1832), it is a sterile mycelium. however, Link (1824) described penicilliform structures with small globose conidia.

 

S. cactorum Pasinetti & Buzzati - Traverso 1935

    

     Sporotrichum cactorum Pasinetti & Buzzati – Traverso - Nuovo G. bot. ital., N.S., 42: 120. 1935.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in PAD. The description does not allow a positive identification. [p. 42]

 

S. caesiellum Fr. 1832

 

     Sporotrichum caesiellum Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 424. 1832.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not in UPS. The diagnosis does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. calcigenum Link 1816

 

     Sporotrichum calcigenum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 35. 1816 (as "calcigena") = Sporotrichum calcigenum Link : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 420. 1832 = Trichosporum calcigenum (Link : Fr.) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4:295. 1886 (as "Trichosporium").

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not in B or L. Fries (1832) cited it with a question mark. The diagnosis indicates a blackish species with globose spores spoiling a chalked wall. It may have been a Cladosporium.

 

S. campyleum Sacc.

 

     Sporotrichum campyleum Sacc. apud Sacc. & Trotter - Syll. Fung. 22: 1283. 1913.

 

     The type specimen (PAD) contains a species of Malbranchea, probably M. arcuata Sigler & Carmichael.

 

S. candidum Link 1809

 

     Sporotrichum candidum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 13. 1809.

 

     The material (B) originating from Link’s herbarium is very heterogeneous. The four packets contain perithecia covered with Aspergillus sp., Athelia decipiens (Höhn. & Litsch.) J. Erikss., Trechispora farinacea (Pers. : Fr.) Liberta and many unidentifiable, sterile fungi. A collection which was also examined by Hughes is selected as neotype. It contains Trechispora farinacea. S. candidum, which was not sanctioned by Fries, thus becomes a synonym of T. farinacea.

 

S. canescens Pers. 1822

 

     Sporotrichum canescens Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 76. 1822.

 

     Nomen dubium. The type specimen (L) contains sterile mycelium, probably of a basidiomycete, as was earlier stated by Fries (1832, index) and Hughes (1958).

 

S. canescens Speg. 1880

 

     Sporotrichum canescens Speg. - An. Soc. cient. argent. 10: 62. 1880 [non S. canescens Pers. 1822] = Rhinotrichum canescens (Speg.) Speg. - An. Soc. cient. argent. 22: 207. 1886 = Hansfordia canescens (Speg.) Hughes Mycol. Pap. 43: 16. 1951.

 

     Nomen dubium. No identifiable fungus could be found on the type material (LPS). De Hoog (1977) observed a Passalora - like fungus on it which fitted the original diagnosis. Hughes (1958) based his combination in Hansfordia on a secondary collection, which is Hansfordia pulvinata (Berk. & Curt.) Hughes fide Deighton (1972) [p. 43]

 

S. carnis Brooks & Hansford 1923

 

     Sporotrichum carnis Brooks & Hansford - Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 8: 131. 1923 = Aleurisma carnis (Brooks & Hansford) Bisby - Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 27: 111. 1944.

 

     The type strain, CBS 378.76, is a pale yellow strain of Geomyces pannorum (Link) Sigler & Carmichael, as was earlier stated by Müller (1965, as Sporotrichum lipsiense) and Van Oorschot (1980).

 

S. carougeaui Langeron 1922

 

     Sporotrichum carougeaui Langeron - Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 15: 453. 1922 = Rhinocladium carougeaui Neveu Lemaire apud C. W. Dodge - Medical Mycology, p. 804. 1935.

 

     The name is generally considered to be a synonym of Trichosporon variabile (Lindner) Delitsch, the anamorph of Hyphopichia burtonii (Boidin et al.) von Arx & van der Walt.

 

S. carpogenum Rühle 1931

 

     Sporotrichum carpogenum Rühle - Phytopathology 21: 1144. 1931.

 

     The type strain, CBS 266.31, is Phialophora malorum (Kidd & Beaumont) McColloch as stated by McColloch (1942, 1944).

 

S. carthusio-viride Rai & Mukerji 1962

 

     Sporotrichum carthusio-viride Rai & Mukerji - Mycopath. Mycol. appl. 18: 122. 1962.

 

     This is a synonym of Myceliophthora lutea Cost., as stated by Taylor (1970, as Chrysosporium) and Van Oorschot (1980).

 

S. caviari Demelius 1916

 

     Sporotrichum caviari Demelius - Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 66: 492. 1916.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant, not in W. The description suggests a fungus with phialides.

 

S. cejpii Fassatiová 1953

 

     Sporotrichum cejpii Fassatiová - Preslia 25: 274. 1953.

 

     The type strain, CBS 362.58, contains a white strain of Geomyces pannorum (Link) Sigler & Carmichael, as has also been stated by Taylor (1970, as Chrysosporium) and Van Oorschot (1980).

 

S. cephalosporioides Peyronel 1913

 

     Sporotrichum cephalosporioides Peyronel - I germi atmosferici dei funghi con micelio (Diss. Padova), p. 23. 1913.

 

     Nomen dubium. Original isolate probably lost. It may have been a species of Acremonium. [p. 44]

 

 

S. cerealis Thüm. 1880

 

     Sporotrichum cerealis Thüm. - Hedwigia 19: 190. 1880 = Trichosporum cercalis (Thüm.) Sacc. - Michelia 2: 639. 1822 (as "Trichosporium") = Stephanosporium cerealis (Thüm.) Swart - Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 48: 461. 1965.

 

     Nomen dubium. The type material (BR) contains a dematiaceous fungus with Arthrinium-like conidia. Swart (1965) based his combination on isolates received from CBS, not on original material. The Oidiodendron (Stephanosporium) species is better referred to as O. nigrum Robak.

 

S. cerebriforme de Vries & Kleine-Natrop 1957

 

     Sporotrichum cerebriforme de Vries & Kleine-Natrop - Mycopath. Mycol. appl. 8: 159. 1957 = Streptomyces cerebriformis (de Vries & Kleine-Natrop) G. Müller - Wiss. Z. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin 13: 637. 1964 = Trichosporiella cerebriformis (de Vries & Kleine-Natrop) W. Gams apud von Arx - Persoonia 6: 184. 1971.

 

     This species has recently been described in detail by Van Oorschot (1980). Taylor (1970), who considered the species a synonym of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht., probably dealt with a contaminant.

 

S. chartaceum Pers. 1822

 

     Sporotrichum chartaceum Pers - Mycol. Eur. 1: 83. 1822.

 

     Nomen dubium. The type material (L) contains an unidentifiable dematiaceous fungus which forms black dots on paper. Fries (1832) considered it a synonym of Myxotrichum chartarum (Nees : Fr.) Fr., while Link (1824) synonymized the species with Oidium chartarum Ehrenb. Saccardo (apud Roumeguère, 1885) made the combination Trichosporium chartarum (Pers.) Sacc., evidently based on Persoon’s species, but used the wrong epithet.

 

S. chartarum P. Karst. 1890

 

     Sporotrichum chartarum P. Karst. - Hedwigia 29: 272. 1890.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in H. The description does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. chioneum Pers. 1822

 

     Sporotrichum chioneum Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 76. 1822.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not in L. Fries (1832, index) considered it a lichen.

 

S. chlorinum Link 1816

 

     Sporotrichum chlorinum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 35. 1816 = Sporotrichum chlorinum Link : Fr - Syst. mycol. 3: 421. 1832.

 

     Nomen dubium. The type specimen (B) is in a poor condition, but belongs to Tomentella. Spores as described in the diagnosis were not found. The species is not Tomentella chlorina (Massee) G. H. Cunn. [p. 45]

 

S. chryseum Peck 1911

 

     Sporotrichum chryseum Peck - Bull. N.Y. St. Mus. 150: 64 (1910). 1911.

 

     The type material (NYS) consists of a whitish to pale pink mould growing on the pore layer of a resupinate Phellinus (probably Ph. johnsonianus (Murr.) Ryv). The fungus is locally golden yellow to yellowish brown; this colour is caused by the numerous basidiospores of the Phellinus, which are slightly thickwalled. No conidiogenous structures are found in the mould, but a few Fusarium-like conidia were present. The diagnosis is evidently based upon two discordant elements (Fusarium-like fungus and Phellinus basidiospores) and the name is thus a nomen confusum.

 

S. chrysospermum Harz 1871

 

     S. chrysospermum Harz - Bull. Soc. imp. Natur. Moscou 44: 106. 1871.

 

     Nomen dubium. The type specimen is probably not extant, not in M. The species was described as a yellow parasite on polypores. Harz (1871) explicitly stated that it was not Sepedonium chrysospermum (Bull. : Fr.) Link.

 

S. cinereo-virens (Kunze & Schmidt : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

     Botrytis cinereo-virens Kunze & Schmidt - Mycol. Hefte 1: 82. 1817 = Sporotrichum cinereo-virens (Kunze & Schmidt : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 416. 1832 = Trichosporum cinereo-virens (Kunze & Schmidt : Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 492. 1849.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type specimen not found, not in B. The description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. cinereum Preuss 1846

 

     Sporotrichum cinereum Preuss-- Bot. Zentbl. 10: 199. 1846.

 

     The type material (B) contains Aspergillus versicolor (Vuill.) Tiraboschi and Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries. The first species fits the diagnosis reasonably well.

 

S. cinereum Schulz. 1882

 

     Sporotrichum cinereum Schulz. - Rada jugosl. Acad. Znanosti umjetnosti mat.-prirodosl. razzeda 64: 3. 1882 (Not seen, diagnosis translated in Bot. Zentbl. 15: 3, 1883) [non S. cinereum Preuss 1846].

 

     Nomen dubium. Type material probably not extant. According to Saccardo (1892) it is probably a Penicillium sp.

 

S. cinereum Peck 1890

 

     Sporotrichum cinereum Peck - Rep. N.Y. St. Mus. 43:29. 1890 [non S. cinereum Preuss 1846, nec S. cinereum Schulz. 1882] = Sporotrichum peckii Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 10: 534. 1892.

 

     The type specimen (NYS) contains a species which is better known as [p. 46] Geniculosporium corticioides (Ferraris & Sacc.) de Hoog. An earlier name for it is Acladium densissimum Schw. 1832 - Trans. Am. phil. Soc., N.S., 4:276 (basionym). Hence Geniculosporium densissimum (Schw.) de Hoog comb. nov. (type in PH).

 

S. cinnabarinum (Pers. : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

     Dematium cinnabarinum Pers. 1801 - Syn. meth. Fung., p. 697. 1801 = Sporotrichum cinnabarinum (Pers. : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 418. 1832 = Trichosporum cinnabarinum (Pers. : Fr.) Fr - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 492. 1849.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not found in UPS and L. The diagnosis does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. cinnamomeum Wallr. 1833

 

     Sporotrichum cinnamomeum Wallr. - Fl. crypt. 2(4), p. 280 (nr. 1858). 1833.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not seen. The diagnosis does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. citri Butler 1925

 

     Sporotrichum citri Butler apud Doidge & Butler - Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 10: 121. 1925.

 

     Type probably not extant, not in K. The description strongly suggests Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins.

 

S. coccineum Wallr. 1833

 

     Sporotrichum coccineum Wallr. - Flora crypt. 2(4), p. 280 (nr. 1856). 1833.

 

Nomen dubium. Type not seen. The description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. coerulescens P. Karst. 1895

 

     Sporotrichum coerulescens P. Karst. - Hedwigia 34: 9. 1895.

 

     The type specimen (H) is the same as that of Sporotrichum glaucum P. Karst. It contains no fungus fitting the original diagnosis. The Triticum is covered with a smut, probably Tilletia triticoides Savulescu, and ellipsoidal to bean-shaped conidia of unknown origin.

 

S. cohaerens Schw. 1832

 

     Sporotrichum cohaerens Schw. - Trans. Amer. phil. Soc., 4: 272. 1832 (" 1831 ") = Trechispora cohaerens (Schw.) Jülich & Stalpers 1980 - Resup. non-por. Aphylloph. north. temp. Hemisph. p. 257. 1980.

 

     The species is also known as Trechispora confinis (Bourd. & Galz.) Liberta. [p. 47]

 

S. collae Link 1818

 

     Sporotrichum collae Link - Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1, l: 182. 1818 = Trichosporum collae (Link) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 295. 1886 (as "Trichosporium").

 

     Type not in B or L. Link (1824) synonymized Sporotrichum collae with Collarium nigrospermum Link, a synonymy which was accepted by Fries (1832) and Hughes (1958).

 

S. columbiense Sprague 1947

 

     Sporotrichum columbiense Sprague - Mycologia 39: 350. 1947.

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not seen. The description of the species, which was isolated from Agropyron, suggests a species of Cryptococcus.

 

S. columnare Petch 1935

 

     Sporotrichum columnare Petch Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 19: 186. 1935.

 

     The type specimen (K) contains Sporothrix isarioides (Petch) de Hoog (de Hoog, 1974).

 

S. conditaneum Demelius 1923

 

     Sporotrichum conditaneum Demelius 1923 - Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 72: 68. 1923.

 

     Type probably not extant, not in W. The description suggests a species of Chrysosporium, of which Ch. xerophilum Pitt comes closest to the description. The pinkish tinge mentioned by Demelius is not known for this species.

 

S. congolense (Baerts) Dodge 1935

 

     Discomyces congolensis Baerts - Bull. med. Katanga 2: 67. 1925 = Actinomyces congolensis (Baerts) Brumpt - Précis Parasitol., ed. 4, p. 1206. 1927 = Sporotrichum congolense (Baerts) Dodge - Medical Mycology, p. 809. 1935 (as "congolensis”).

    

     Nomen dubium. Type material probably not extant. Müller (1964b) also regarded the identity as doubtful.

 

S. conspersum (Link : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

     Acladium conspersum Link Mag. - Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin 3:11. 1809 = Sporotrichum conspersum (Link : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 419. 1832 = Trichosporum conspersum (Link : Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 492. 1849 = Oidium conspersum (Link: Fr) Linder Lloydia 5: 176. 1942 = Haplotrichum conspersum (Link : Fr.) Hol. - Jech. - Ceská Mykol. 30: 4. 1976.

 

     Haplotrichum conspersum, the anamorph of Botryobasidium conspersum J. Erikss., is a well-known species.

 

S. corii (Corda) Sacc. & Trav. 1911

 

     Chrysosporium corii Corda - Sturm Deutschl. Fl. 3, 3: 85. 1833 = Sporotrichum corii (Corda) Sacc. & Trav. - Syll. Fung. 20: 872. 1911. [p. 48]

 

     The type specimen (PR) contains Geomyces pannorum (Link) Sigler & Carmichael, as indicated by Hughes (1958) and Carmichael (1962).

 

S. coronans P. Karst. 1892

 

     Sporotrichum coronans P. Karst - Hedwigia 31: 298. 1892.

 

     The type material (H) represents the Geniculosporium state of Hypoxylon mammiforme (Pers. : Fr.) P. Martin. It is found on and close to the perithecia.

 

S. councilmannii Wolbach & al. 1917

 

     Sporotrichum councilmannii Wolbach, Sisson & Meier - J. med. Res. 36: 337. 1917 = Rhinocladium councilmannii (Wolbach & al.) Neveu-Lemaire - Précis Parasitol. hum., éd. 3, p. 84. 1921 = Rhinotrichum councilmannii (Wolbach & al.) Ota - Jap. J. Dermatol. Urol. 28: 4.1928 = Acremoniella councilmannii (Wolbach & al.) Vuill. - Encycl. mycol. 3, p. 68.1931 = Sporotrichum beurmannii Matruchot & Ramond var. councilmannii (Wolbach & al.) Redaelli & Cif. - Tratt. Micopat. umana 5: 456. 1942.

 

     Müller (1964b) thought the fungus to be the anamorph of Petriellidium boydii (Shear) Malloch (= Pseudoallescheriella boydii (Shear) McGinnis & al.), but the CBS-strains studied by him do not appear to have been subcultures of the type strain (de Hoog, 1974). The identity may, however, be correct from the

original description.

 

S. cracoviense Lipinski 1924

 

     Sporotrichum cracoviense Lipinski - Medycyna dosw. spol. 2: 153. 1924 = Monilia cracoviensis (Lipinski) Vuill. - Encycl. mycol. 2, p. 83. 1931 = Rhinocladium cracoviense (Lipinski) Coudert - Guide prat. Mycol. méd., p. 296. 1955.

 

     Müller (1964b) considered it a nomen dubium; according to the original diagnosis the species might belong to Trichosporon.

 

S. crassipilum P. Karst. 1896

 

     Sporotrichum crassipilum P. Karst. - Hedwigia 35: 48. 1896.

 

     The type material (H) contains a Penicillium, possibly P. verrucosum Dierckx.

 

S. crateriforme (Hudelo & al.) Vuill. 1931

 

     Endomyces crateriformis Hudelo, Sartory & Montlaur - C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 170: 1086. 1920 = S. crateriforme (Hudelo & al.) Vuill. - Encycl. mycol. 2:70.1931 = Zymonema crateriforme (Hudelo & al.) C.W. Dodge Medical Mycology, p. 174. 1935.

 

     Nomen dubium. Vuillemin (1931) transferred the species to Sporotrichum despite his awareness of the presence of asci. Müller (1964b) suggested Saccharomycopsis capsularis Sehiönning (as Endomycopsis capsularis) as a possible synonym. [p. 49]

 

S. croceum Kunze 1817

 

     Sporotrichum croceum Kunze apud Kunze & Schmidt - Mykol. Hefte 1: 81. 1817 = Ozonium croceum (Kunze) Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 86. 1822 = Alytosporium croceum (Kunze) Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 24. 1824 = Corticium croceum (Kunze) Bres. - Atti Ist. R. Accad. roveret. Sci. 3,3: 112. 1897 [non C. croceum (Pat.) Sacc. 1895 = Spicaria crocea (Kunze) Oudem. - Enum. syst. Fung. 1: 281. 1919 (as "croceum")].

 

     Nomen dubium. Fries (1828) considered this a synonym of Thelephora sulphurea (Pers. : Fr.) Fr. (= Trechispora vaga (Fr.) Liberta). The type specimen (B) does not contain an identifiable fungus, as also stated by Jülich (1972).

 

S. cutaneum Schabinski 1960

 

     Sporotrichum cutaneum Schabinski (as "Sporotrichon") - Grundriss der medizinischen Mykologie, p. 82 (not seen, citation from Müller, 1964b).

 

     Nomen nudum. According to Müller (1964b), the name was only mentioned by Schabinski as a synonym of Geotrichum candidum.

 

S. cylindrosporum Link 1824

 

     Sporotrichum cylindrosporum Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 14. 1824.

 

     Nomen dubium. Fries (1832) considered it a synonym of Dactylium varium (Nees : Fr.) Fr. (= Cladobotryum varium Nees). Saccardo (1886) considered it a synonym of both Acrocylindrium (Alytosporium) roseum (Ehrenb.) Bon. (p. 616) and Fusarium longum (Wallr.) Sacc. (p. 719). No type material was found in B or L.

 

S. dahliae Thüm. 1822

 

     Sporotrichum dahliae Thüm. - Bull. Soc. imp. Natur. Moscou 55: 77. 1882 ("1880").

 

     Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in W. The description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. darutaeanum Roum. 1886

 

     Sporotrichum darutaeanum Roum. - Revue mycol. 8: 92. 1886

 

     The type material (BR) contains Eurotium herbariorum (Wiggers : Fr.) Link and its anamorph Aspergillus glaucus Link.

 

S. dehradunense Sarbhoy & Saksena 1966

 

     Sporotrichum dehradunense Sarbhoy & Saksena - Sydowia 19: 198. 1966 ("1965").

 

     The type (culture) was not available for study. The description and drawing strongly suggest Sporotrichum pruinosum.

 

S. dendriticum (Agardh) Duby 1830

 

     Byssocladium dendriticum Agardh - Syst. Algarum, p. 31 (fide Duby) = Sporotrichum dendriticum (Agardh) Duby apud DC. - Bot. Gall. éd. 2, p. 924.1830. [p. 50]

 

     Nomen dubium. Fries (1832, index, p. 179) mentioned this species as a synonym of Myxotrichum chartarum (Nees : Fr.) Kunze. According to the description of Duby it may well have been a Penicillium sp.

 

S. densum (Ditm. : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

     Botrytis densa Ditm - Sturm Deutschl. Fl. 4: 105. 1817 = Sporotrichum densum (Ditm. : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 419. 1832 = Trichosporum dcnsum (Ditm. : Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 493. 1849

 

     Nomen dubium. The type material (B) contained no fungus corresponding with the description, as stated by de Hoog (1972).

 

S. densum Link 1809

 

     Sporotrichum densum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 13. 1809 [non S. densum (Ditm. : Fr.) Fr.] = lsaria densa (Link) Giard - C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 113: 270. 1891 = Spicaria densa (Link) Vuill. 1910 - Bull. Séanc. Soc. Sci. Nancy 11: 153. 1910 = Beauveria densa (Link) Picard - Annls Ec. nat. Agric. Montpellier 13: 200. 1914 = Penicillium densum (Link) Biourge - Cellule 33:102. 1923.

 

     The type specimen (B) contains Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., but the epithet densum was rejected as a nomen confusum, because it had frequently been used for two different species of Beauveria (de Hoog, 1972).

 

S. dermatodes Kane 1919

 

     Sporotrichum dermatodes Kane apud Castellani & Chalmers - Manual trop. Med. ed. 3, p. 1032. 1919. Nomen nudum.

 

     The name is only mentioned as a synonym of Ustilago hypodytes Schlecht.

 

S. dermatosum Schwartz & al. 1957

 

     Sporotrichum dermatosum Schwartz, Tulipan & Birmingham 1957 - Occupational diseases of the skin, ed. 3, 1957 (not seen, cited from Müller, 1964b). Nomen nudum.

 

S. destructor Pittman nomen nudum

 

     The species is the causal organism of a canker of Eucalyptus. Walker and Bertus (1971) considered it identical with Ramularia pitereka J. Walker & Bertus.

 

S. dimorphosporum v. Arx 1971

 

     See under Disporotrichum dimorphosporum, p. 30.

 

S. dispar (Vidal) Lindau 1909

 

     Microsporon dispar Vidal - Annls Dermatol. Syph. 3: 22. 1882 = Sporotrichum dispar (Vidal) Lindau - Rabenh. Krypt.Fl. 1, 8: 195. 1909 = Actinomyces dispar (Vidal) Brumpt - Précis Parasitol. éd. 4, p. 1206. 1927.

 

     Nomen dubium. The name was originally not validly published, because Vidal named the species Microsporon anomoeon at the same time (Art. 33 ICBN). [p. 51] Vuillemin (1895) considered it a Micrococcus sp. and Müller (1964b) a nomen dubium. The type specimen was isolated from pityriasis circinata, a disease known to be caused by Malassezia ovalis. The description is too poor to allow a positive identification.

 

S. dori de Beurmann & Gougerot 1906

Sporotrichum dori de Beurmann & Gougerot 1906 - Annls Dermatol. Syph. 7: 996. = Discomyces dori (de Beurmann & Gougerot) de Beurmann & Gougerot - Les nouvelles Mycoses, p. 59. 1909 = Rhinocladium dori (de Beurmann & Gougerot) Neveu-Lemaire - Précis Parasitol. hum. éd. 3, p. 84. 1921 = Oospora dori (de Beurmann & Gougerot) Sartory - Champ. paras. Homme Anim. p. 770. 1922 = Actinomyces dori (de Beurmann & Gougerot) Brumpt - Précis Parasitol., éd. 4, p. 1206. 1927 = Nocardia dori (de Beurmann & Gougerot) Vuill. - Encycl. mycol. 2: 123. 1931.

 

The original culture is lost. Hütter (1961) and Müller (1964b) also considered the name a nomen dubium.

 

S. elaeochroum Fr. 1832

 

Sporotrichum elaeochroum Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 417. 1832 = Trichosporum elaeochroum (Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 492. 1849.

 

Nomen dubium. Type not in UPS. The description is insufficient for a positive identification.

 

S. entomophilum Peck 1896

 

Sporotrichum entomophilum Peck - Rep. N. Y. St. Mus. nat. Hist. 50: 116. 1896.

The type specimen (NYS) contains very few conidia and conidiogenous structures, which indicate Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill.

 

S. epigaeum Brunaud 1888

 

Sporotrichum epigaeum Brunaud Annls Soc. Sci. nat. Rochelle 24: 81. 1888 = Beauveria epigaea (Brunaud) Langeron apud Brumpt - Précis Parasitol. éd. 5, p. 1839. 1936 = Tritirachium epigaeum (Brunaud) Langeron - Annls Parasit. hum. comp. 22: 98. 1947.

 

Nomen dubium. The type material is lost and the description does not give a clue to the identity of the species, which is often considered as Beauveria. This interpretation originated from Aschieri (1929), who under this name described an isolate of his own. Dodge (1935) named Aschieri’s fungus Sporotrichum schenckii var. fioccoi. It is Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch.

 

S. epigaeum Brunaud var. terrestre Daszewska 1912

 

Sporotrichum epigaeum Brunaud var. terrestre Daszewska - Bull. Soc. bot. Genève, Sér. 2, 4: 291. 1912.

 

Nomen dubium. Type material lost. According to the description and drawing the species may belong to Trichoderma or Penicillium. [p. 52]

 

S. epiphyllum Pers. 1822

 

Sporotrichum epiphyllum Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 77. 1822.

 

The type specimen (L) on Rumex acetosa contains Peronospora rumicis Corda, as stated by Hughes (1958). It is not Peronospora epiphylla (Pers.) Pat. & Lagerh., which is based on Botrytis epiphylla Pers.

 

S. epiphyllum Link 1824

 

Sporotrichum epiphyllum Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 6,1824 [non S. epiphyllum Pers. 1822].

 

Nomen dubium. The type material (B) contains a fungus with arthroconidia.

 

S. equi Carougeau 1909

 

Sporotrichum equi Carougeau - J. Méd. vét. Zootechnol. 60: 80. 1909.

 

The name is generally considered as a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins. Lurie (1948) indiscriminately used the names Sporotrichum equi, Rhinocladium equi and Rh. equinum, Without indicating which one he preferred. Thus none of these combinations can be attributed to him (Art. 33 ICBN).

 

S. erubescens (Nees) Link 1818

Aleurisma erubescens Nees - System Pilze Schwämme, p. 51. 1817 = Sporotrichum erubescens (Nees) Link -Jb. Gewächsk. l, 1: 178. 1818 = Aleurisma erubescens Nees Fr. - Syst. Mycol. 3: 453. 1832.

 

Nomen dubium. Four collections of Link’s material are preserved in B, two of them ex herb. Ehrenberg. The material, which is probably from Populus, contains sterile mycelium. Link (1818) considered the species as "eine Abänderung von Sporotrichum sporulosum" which according to Rifai (1969) is Trichoderma polysporum (Link : Fr.) Rifai]. Link’s conclusion was probably based on a collection of his own, which contains a Paecilomyces-like fungus.

 

S. eupatoriae Unamuno 1923

 

Sporotrichum eupatoriae Unamuno - Asoc. Españ. Progr. Cienc. Congr. Salamanca, p. 50. 1923.

 

Nomen dubium. Neither the type specimen nor the original diagnosis were available for study.

 

S. exile Schulz. & Sacc. 1884

 

Sporotrichum exile Schulz. & Sacc. - Hedwigia 23:111. 1884.

 

Type material probably not extant. The species is possibly a synonym of Fusarium poae (Peck) Wollenw. fide Wollenweber and Reinking (1935). Schulzer and Saccardo (1884) gave as reference: Schulzer (Ill. Fung. Slav. nr 446). This work has never been published. Taylor (1970) suggested its identity with Chrysosporium tropicum on the basis of CBS 350.47, which is not derived from the type specimen. [p. 53]

 

S. expansum Niessl 1909

      S. expansum Niessl apud J. Paul -Verh. naturf. Ver. Brünn 47: 28. 1909.

The type specimen (M) contains a Trichoderma which is possibly T. longibrachiatum Rifai, but deviates in conidium dimensions (3.5-4.5 x 1.8-2.2 µm) and a rather dense branching of the conidiophores.

 

S. fallax Libert 1832

 

Sporotrichum fallax Libert- Plantae cryptog. Ardenn., nr 187. 1832 (herbarium label, basionym) = Piloderma fallax (Libert) Stalpers, comb. nov.

 

The holotype (BR) and isotypes in W and PAD contain well developed material with basidia and basidiospores of a species which is better known as Piloderma bicolor (Peck) Jülich sensu Jülich = Piloderma croceum J. Erikss. & Hjortstam. The description of Libert, who described the colour as "primo aureis, tum sulphureis, demum albis" excludes a possible synonymy with Piloderma byssinum (P. Karst.) Jülich.

 

S. fallax (Schulz.) Sacc. & Trav. 1911

 

Miainiomyces fallax Schulz. -Ver. zool. -bot. Ges. Wien 19/20: 1257. 1871 = Sporotrichum fallax (Schulz.) Sacc. & Trav. - Syll. Fung. 20: 872. 1911 [non S. fallax Libert 1832].

 

Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant. The description suggests an Acremonium-like species.

 

S. fenestrale (Roth) Ditm. 1813

 

Conferva fenestralis Roth - Catalecta bot. 2: 191. 1800 = Sporotrichum fenestrale (Roth) Ditm. - Sturm Deutschl. Fl. 1, p. 1. 1813 = Byssocladium fenestrale (Roth) Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 36.1816.

 

Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant, not in B. The description does not allow a positive identification. Saccardo (1886) considered it a synonym of Aspergillus griseus Link.

 

S. ferrugineum Fr. : Fr. 1832

Sporotrichum ferrugineum Fr. : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 418. 1832 = Physospora ferruginea (Fr. : Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 495. 1849.

 

Nomen dubium. Type not in UPS. The diagnosis does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. fiedleri Rabenh. 1851

 

Sporotrichum fiedleri Rabenh. - Bot. Ztg 1851: 669. = Trichosporum fiedleri (Rabenh.) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 292. 1886 as ("Trichosporium").

 

The type specimen (B) contains Nodulisporium geochroum (Desm. apud Fr.) Stalpers & de Hoog, better known as Nodulisporium ochraceum Preuss. [p. 54]

 

S. fimicola Speg. 1878

 

Sporotrichum fimicola Speg. - Michelia 1: 224. 1878.

 

Nomen dubium. Type not in LPS or PAD. The species is described as an anamorph of Sordaria fimicola (Rob.) Ces. & de Not. This is highly improbable, because conidial anamorphs are unknown in Sordaria (Cain & Groves, 1948; Moreau, 1953; Lundqvist, 1972). The identity of the species cannot be ascertained by the original diagnosis.

 

S. fimicola O. Rostrup 1916

 

Sporotrichum fimicola O. Rostrup - Dansk bot. Ark. 2: 40. 1916 [non S. fimicola Speg. 1878].

 

Type not in C or CP. The original diagnosis and drawings leave no doubt that the species is Chrysosporium keratinophilum (D. Frey) ex Carmichael.

 

S. flavicans (Link : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

Botrytis flavicans Link 1816 - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 36. 1816 = Sporotrichum flavicans (Link : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 419. 1832 = Trichosporum flavicans (Link : Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 492. 1849.

 

Nomen dubium. The type specimen (B) does not contain an identifiable fungus. A second collection in B (not from Link) contains Amphinema byssoides (Pers. : Fr.) J. Erikss.

 

S. flavicans (Link : Fr.) Fr. var. spicatum Ferraris 1912

 

Sporotrichum flavicans (Link : Fr.) Fr. var. spicatum Ferraris apud Ferraris & Massa - Annls mycol. 10: 295. 1912 = Tritirachium spicatum (Ferraris) Limber - Mycologia 32: 29. 1940 = Beauveria spicata (Ferraris) Saccas - Revue Mycol. 13: 64. 1948

 

Nomen dubium. Type not in PAD. According to de Hoog (1972) it may have been a Nodulisporium-like fungus.

 

S. flavissimum Link 1816

 

Sporotrichum flavissimum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 34. 1816 = Sporotrichum flavissimum Link : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 423. 1832.

 

The sheet with Link’s material (B) contains three envelopes, one of them with material collected near Rostock. Hughes (1958) examined this collection and considered it to be the holotype. It consists of two small pieces of mycelium without substrate, felty-tomentose, whitish at the margin, yellow to brownish yellow in the centre. The species belongs to Leucogyrophana (Coniophoraceae).

 

S. flavissimum Link : Fr. var. candidum Demelius 1923

 

Sporotrichum flavissimum Link : Fr. var. candidum Demelius -.Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 72: 71. 1923. [p. 55]

 

Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant. The original description does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. flavissimum Link : Fr. var. lunzinense Szilyinyi 1941

Sporotrichum flavissimum Link : Fr. var. lunzinense Szilvinyi - Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde Abt. 2, 103: 177. 1941.

 

Type not extant. The description suggests Geomyces pannorum (Link) Sigler & Carmichael var. asperulatus (Sigler & Carmichael) v. Oorschot.

 

S. flavovirens Link 1824

 

Sporotrichum flavovirens Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 17. 1824

 

Nomen dubium. Type not in B or L. Fries (1832) considered it a synonym of Botrytis virella Fr. The original diagnosis does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. flavum (Fr. : Fr.) Sacc. 1886

 

Dendrina flava Fr. : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 454. 1832 = Sporotrichum flavum (Fr. : Fr.) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 103. 1886.

 

Nomen dubium. Type not in UPS. The original description does not offer a clue to its identity. The species is the type of Dendrina Fr., which is thus a nomen dubium, as stated by Carmichael et al. (1980).

 

S. flexuosum Sacc. & Therry 1886

 

Sporotrichum tortuosum Sacc. & Therry 1881 [non S. tortuosum Wallr. 1833] = Sporotrichum flexuosum Sacc. & Therry apud Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 112. 1886.

 

The type specimen (PAD) contains a species of Nodulisporium. The material is scanty and few intact conidiogenous cells were seen. Identification to the species level was not possible.

 

S. floccosum Bres. 1896

 

Sporotrichum floccosum Bres. - Hedwigia 35: 301. 1896.

 

The type material (S) contains Haplotrichum conspersum (Link : Fr.) Hol.-Jech.

 

S. foliicola Oudem. 1902

 

Sporotrichum foliicola Oudem. - Nederl. kruidk. Archf, Ser. 2, 3: 764. 1902 = Aureobasidium foliicola (Oudem.) G. Müller - Wiss. Z. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin 13: 855. 1964 (as “foliicolum"). Basionym given as S. foliicolum Oudemans ex Delitsch without full reference.

 

An unpublished drawing by Oudemans (L) suggests Aureobasidium and the species was considered a synonym of A. pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud by de Hoog & Hermanides-Nijhof (1977). [p. 56]

 

S. foliorum Desm. 1838

 

Sporotrichum foliorum Desm. - Annls Sci. nat., Bot. Sér. 2, 10: 309. 1883.

 

Nomen dubium. The type material (PC) does not contain an identifiable fungus and the description is too vague to allow a positive identification. Taylor (1970), after studying an original specimen in FH, reached the same conclusion.

 

S. fonsecae Pereira 1929

 

Sporotrichum fonsecae Pereira - Revta Med.-Cirurg. Brasil 37: 265. 1919 = Rhinocladium fonsecae (Pereira) Pereira - Revta Med.-Cirurg. Brasil 38: 169. 1930 (in both combination s as ”fonsecai").

 

This is a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins fide de Hoog (1974).

 

S. fossarum Fautrey 1895

 

Sporotrichum fossarum Fautrey apud Fautrey & Lambotte - Revue mycol. 17: 71. 1895 = Ostracoderma fossarum Hughes - Can. J. Bot. 36: 792. 1958.

 

The type specimen (UPS) contains Chromelosporium tuberculatum (Pers.) Hennebert as was stated by Hennebert (1973).

 

S. fructigenum Link 1818

 

Sporotrichum fructigenum Link - Jb. Gewächsk. l, 1: 169. 1818.

 

Nomen dubium. Type not in B or L. Link (1824) synonymized Monilia fructigena (Pers. : Fr.) Eaton with this species.

 

S. fuliginosum Pers. 1822

 

Sporotrichum fuliginosum Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 77. 1822.

 

The type specimen (L) contains Virgaria nigra (Link : Fr.) Nees, as also indicated by Wakefield (on the packet) and Hughes (1958).

 

S. fulvum (Link : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

Botrytis fulva Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 58. 1824 = Sporotrichum fulvum (Link : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 418. 1832 = Trichosporum fulvum (Link : Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 492. 1849 = Polyactis fulva (Link : Fr.) Bon. - Handb. allg. Mykol. p. 115. 1851 = Chromelosporium fulvum (Link : Fr.) McGinty, Hennebert & Korf apud Hennebert & Korf - Mycologia 67: 216.1975.

 

There is no material in B or L which can be accepted as the type specimen of Botrytis fulva, nor is Fries’ collection of Sporotrichum fulvum still extant. Link (1824) listed Dematium ollare Pers. as a synonym. The correct name of the species is Chromelosporium fulvum, the peat mould. Its nomenclature has recently been discussed by Hennebert & Korf (1975). [p. 57]

 

S. fulvum Link 1809

 

Sporotrichum fulvum Link Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 12. 1809 [non S. fulvum (Link : Fr.) Fr.] = Alytosporium fulvum (Link) Link Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 24. 1824 = Nodulisporium fulvum (Link) Hughes - Can. J. Bot. 36: 789. 1958 (referring to the at that time pre-starting point basionym).

 

The type material (B) contains brown Tomentella-like mycelium, sterile mycelium of another species and perithecia. No Nodulisporium could be found. De Hoog, who also studied the material, reached a similar conclusion. A collection in L in Herb. Persoon, sent by Link, with the annotation "may be considered

the type of Alytosporium fulvum Link" is unidentifiable, as also stated by Wakefield (note on packet).

 

S. fumosellum Bres. 1908

 

Sporotrichum fumosellum Bres. apud Jaap - Annls mycol. 6: 214. 1908. Nomen nudum.

 

Jaap (1908) stated: "Die Beschreibung dieser neuen Art bleibt Herrn Abate G. Bresadola vorbehalten". Bresadola apparently never described the species. There is no material in B and S.

 

S. fungicola (Corda) Sacc. 1886

 

Miainiomyces fungicola Corda- Sturm Deutschl. Krypt. Fl. 13:83.1833 (as `fungicolus’) = Capillaria fungicola (Corda) Corda Ic. Fung. 1: 10. 1837 = Sporotrichum fungicola (Corda) Sacc. -Syll. Fung. 4:106.1886 (as “fungicolum”).

 

Nomen dubium. Type not in PR. The original diagnosis is not sufficient for a positive identification.

 

S. fungorum Link 1818

 

Sporotrichum fungorum Link Jb. Gewächsk. l,1: 170. 1818.

 

The type specimen (B) contains Sepedonium chrysospermum (Bull.) Link : Fr., as stated by Hughes (1958).

 

S. furfur (Robin) Sacc. 1886

 

Microsporon furfur Robin - Hist. nat. Vég. parasit. Homme Anim. p. 436. 1853 = Sporotrichum furfur (Robin) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 100. 1886 = Malassezia furfur (Robin) Baillon - Traité bot. méd. crypt. p. 243. 1889 = Oidium furfur (Robin) Zopf - Die Pilze, p. 527. 1890 = Monilia furfur (Robin) Vuill. - Encycl. mycol. 2: 89. 1931 = Pityrosporum furfur (Robin) Emmons, Binford & Utz - Medical Mycology ed. 2, p. 159. 1970 (no full reference to basionym)

 

The species is a good species in Malassezia, fide Müller (1965), and is the causal agent of pityriasis versicolor.

 

S. fusco-album Link 1818

 

Sporotrichum fusco-album Link-Jb. Gewächsk. 1,1: 177. 1818. [p. 58]

 

The type specimen (B) contains Haplotrichum conspersum (Link : Fr.) Hol.Jech., as stated by Hughes (1958, as Acladium conspersum Link).

 

S. fuscum Link 1809

 

Sporotrichum fuscum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 12. 1809 = Alytosporium fuscum (Link) Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 25. 1824 = Trichosporum fuscum (Link) Sacc - Michelia 2: 640 (as “Trichosporium"). 1882.

 

The type specimen (B) contains Tomentella rubiginosa (Bres.) R. Maire (Stalpers, 1975). A new combination with the epithet `fusca" would create a homonym of Tomentella fusca (Pers. : Fr.) Schroet.

 

S. geochroum Desm. : Fr.

 

Sporotrichum geochroum Desm. apud Fr. : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 416. 1832 (basionym) = Trichosporum geochroum (Desm. : Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 492. 1849 = Nodulisporium geochroum (Desm. : Fr.) Stalpers & de Hoog, comb. nov.

 

This species is better known as Nodulisporium ochraceum Preuss. The type material (PR) fits the description well, although the conidia are somewhat larger: subglobose to ellipsoidal, 5.5-6.5(-7.5) x 3.5-4(-4.5) µm.

 

S. glaucum P. Karst. 1895

 

Sporotrichum glaucum P. Karst. Hedwigia 34: 9. 1895.

 

Nomen dubium. The type specimen (H) is also labelled S. coerulescens P. Karst.; it does not contain a fungus corresponding with the description.

 

S. globuliferum Speg. 1880

 

Sporotrichum globuliferum Speg. - An. Soc. cient. argent. 10: 278. 1880 = Beauveria globulifera (Speg.) Picard-Annls Ec. natn. Agric. Montpellier 13: 203. 1914.

 

The type material (LPS) contains Beauveria bassiana (Bas.) Vuill. as stated by MacLeod (1954) and de Hoog (1972).

 

S. gorlenkoanum Kuritzina & Sizova 1967

 

Sporotrichum gorlenkoanum Kuritzina & Sizova - Mikol. Fitopatol. 1: 342. 1967.

 

Type material not available for study. The description strongly suggests Engyodontium album (Linder) de Hoog (= Tritirachium album Linder).

 

S. gougerotii Matruchot 1910

 

Sporotrichum gougerotii Matruchot - C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 150: 545. 1910 = Rhinocladium gougerotii (Matruchot) Verdun Précis Parasitol. hum., éd. 2, p. 677. 1913 = Torula gougerotii (Matruchot) Kolle & Wassermann 1913 - Handbuch der pathogenen Mikroorganismen, ed. 2,1913 (not seen) = Dematium gougerotii (Matruchot) Grigoraki - Bull. trimest. Soc. mycol. Fr. 40: 274. 1924 = Oospora gougerotii (Matruchot) Janke-Arch. Derm. Syphil. 187: 693. 1949 = Phialophora gougerotii (Matruchot) [p. 59] Borelli - Acta cient. venez. 6: 81. 1955 = Cladosporium gougerotii (Matruchot) Carriôn & Silva - Arch. Derm. 72: 532. 1955

 

Nomen dubium. According to McGinnis & Padhye (1977) the original specimen, the type culture of which has been lost, was probably Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins. Borelli (1955) designated as neotype Wangiella dermatididis McGinnis, fide McGinnis (1977). De Hoog (1977) considered S. gougerotii a synonym of Exophiala mansonii (Castell.) de Hoog.

 

S. granuliferum P. Karst. 1890

 

Sporotrichum granuliferum P. Karst. - Hedwigia 29:272. 1890

 

The type specimen (H) contains a whitish Penicillium (subsectio divaricata), which agrees with the original diagnosis, but cannot be identified at the species level. The main part of the collection consists of an immature dematiaceous fungus, which, however, does not fit Karsten’s protologue.

 

S. granulosum (Martins) Link 1818

 

Aleurisma granulosum Martius - Flora crypt. Erlang., p. 335. 1817 = Sporotrichum granulosum (Martius) Link - Jb. Gewächsk. l, 1: 183. 1818 = Coccotrichum martii Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6:26.1824 (name change for unknown reason) = Collarium granulosum (Martins : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. Mycol. 3:441. 1832.

 

Type specimen not seen. Van Oorschot (1980) considered S. granulosum a Nomen dubium.

 

S. gratum Schw. 1831

 

Sporotrichum gratum Schw. - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. 4 (N.S.): 273. 1831.

 

Nomen dubium. The type specimen (PH) does not contain an identifiable fungus and the diagnosis does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. greeonis (Dodge) Gougerot 1950

 

Sporotrichum schenckii var. greconis Dodge - Medical Mycology, p. 808. 1935 = Sporotrichum greconis (Dodge) Gougerot - Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 50: 1348. 1950. Nomen nudum.

 

The species was only incidentally mentioned by Dodge (1935). It was treated as a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins by de Hoog (1974).

 

S. grigsbyi Dodge 1935

 

Sporotrichum grigsbyi Dodge - Medical Mycology, p. 801. 1935. Nomen nudum.

 

The name is possibly a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins fide de Hoog (1974).

 

S. grisellum Sacc. 1881

 

Sporotrichum grisellum Sacc. - Michelia 2: 359. 1881. [p. 60]

 

The type specimen (PAD) contains Geniculosporium densissimum (Schw.) de Hoog, formerly known as G. corticioides (Ferraris & Sacc.) de Hoog.

 

S. griseo-flavum Link 1816

 

Sporotrichum griseo flavum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 35. 1816 = Alytosporium griseo-flavum (Link) Steudel -Nomen cl. bot., p. 54. 1824.

 

Nomen dubium. Type not found in B or L. The description does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. griseum Link 1809

 

Sporotrichum griseum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 13. 1809 = Sporotrichum griseum Link : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 421. 1832.

 

Nomen dubium. The type material (B) does not contain an identifiable fungus and the original description contains insufficient detail to allow a positive identification.

 

S. guayaquilense (Valenzuela) Aschieri 1929

 

Rhinocladium guayaquilense Valenzuela apud Brumpt - Précis Parasitol., ed. 4, p. 1329. 1927 = Sporotrichum guayaquilense (Valenzuela) Aschieri - Atti Ist. bot. "Giovanni Briosi", Ser. 4, 1: 204. 1929. Nomen nudum.

 

The species was mentioned by Brumpt as imperfectly known and by Aschieri as "non sufficientemente decritta".

 

S. gunnerae Oudem. 1892

 

Sporotrichum gunnerae Oudem. - Ned. kruidk. Archf, Ser. 2, 6: 18.1892.

 

Nomen dubium. No fungus fitting the original diagnosis could be found on the type material (L).

 

S. gynerii (Lambotte & Fautrey) ex Keissler 1923

 

Diplocladium gynerii Lambotte & Fautrey apud Fautrey - Herb. crypt. Côte d’Or, nr 2814. 1898 = Sporotrichum gynerii (Lambotte & Fautrey) ex Kaiser - Annls mycol. 21:81.1923.

 

Nomen dubium. Type not found. Fautrey published the name with the remark that the diagnosis would soon follow, but it was probably never published. Keissler’s description is very brief and does not give a clue to the identity of the species. It may have been an Acremonium.

 

S. hamosum Rabenh. 1844

 

Sporotrichum hamosum Rabenh. - Deutschl. Krypt. Fl. 1: 81. 1844 = Trichosporum hamosum (Rabenh.) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 290. 1886 (as "Trichosporium")

 

Nomen dubium. Type not seen. The diagnosis does not allow a positive identification. [p. 61]

 

S. hellebori Oudem. 1901

 

Sporotrichum hellebori Oudem. - Ned. Kruidk. Archf, Ser. 3, 2: 303. 1901.

 

The type material (L) contains a mixture of two Acremonium species which resemble A. charticola (Lindau) W. Gams and A. implicatum (Gilman & Abbott) W. Gams. A fungus close to or possibly identical with the latter species best fits Oudemans’ description because the conidia are fusoid.

 

S. helvolum Wallr. 1833

 

Sporotrichum helvolum Wallr. - Flora Crypt. German. 2(4): 280. 1833.

 

The type specimen (STR) was identified by Hughes (1958) as Acladium conspersum Link (= Haplotrichum conspersum (Link : Fr.) Hol.-Jech.

 

S. himantiae Schw. 1832

 

Sporotrichum himantiae Schw. - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. 4 (N.S.): 271. 1832 ("1831").

 

Nomen dubium. The type specimen (PH) contains clamped hyphae with swellings. Schweinitz described the spores as "sporidiis nudis creberrimis globosis candidis conglomeratis inspersis", but no spores fitting this description were found.

 

S. hippocastani Corda 1837

 

Sporotrichum hippocastani Corda - Ic. Fung. 1: 10. 1837.

 

The type specimen (PRM) contains Verticillium luteo-album (Link : Fr.) Subram., as stated previously by Hughes (1958, as V. tenerum).

 

S. hokkaidoense Y. Kobayasi 1941

 

Sporotrichum hokkaidoense Y. Kobayasi - Scient. Rep. Tokyo Bunrika Daig., Sect. B, 5: 253. 1941.

 

Type material was lost in World War II. De Hoog (1974) considered the species as probably belonging to Sporothrix. Kobayasi (1941) mentioned Cordyceps hokkaidoensis Y. Kobayasi as the teleomorph.

 

S. holmbergii Speg. 1882

 

Sporotrichum holmbergii Speg. - An. Soc. cient. argent. 13: 24. 1882

 

The type specimen (LPS) contains Chrysosporium merdarium (Link : Fr.) Carmichael, which is concordant with the description.

S. holosericeum Preuss 1851

 

Sporotrichum holosericeum Preuss 1851 - Linnaea 24:108. 1851 = Trichosporum holosericeum (Preuss) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 294. 1886 (as "Trichosporium").

 

Nomen dubium. The type material (B) contains numerous thick-walled [p. 62] conidia, which are reminiscent of those of Spadicoides atra (Corda) Hughes. However, no conidiogenous cells could be found.

 

S. hospicida Schulz. & Sacc. 1884

 

Sporotrichum hospicida Schulz. & Sacc. - Hedwigia 23: 126. 1884.

 

Nomen dubium. Type specimen probably lost. Schulzer & Saccardo (1884) referred to Schulzer (Ill. Fung. Slav. nr 816), but this has never been published. The diagnosis does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. humanum Speg. 1878

 

Sporotrichum humanum Speg. Michelia 1: 223. 1878.

 

Nomen dubium. Type specimen not seen, not in LPS. The species was described as an anamorph of Sordaria humana (Fuckel) Wint.; this connection is improbable because conidial anamorphs are unknown in Sordaria. The correct classification of the fungus is not clear from the description.

 

S. humanum Benedek 1926

 

Sporotrichum humanum Benedek - Derm. Wschr. 83: 1804. 1926 [non S. humanum Speg. 1878]. Nomen nudum.

 

Benedek mentioned the name in a discussion on Sporotrichum lipsiense (= Geomyces pannorum (Link) Sigler & Carmichael).

 

S. hypnophilum Pers. 1822

 

Sporotrichum hypnophilum Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 78. 1822.

 

The type specimen (L) contains very little fungal material, some globose Aspergillus-like conidia, 3-5 µm diam, and brown protonemata of a moss. I concur with Hughes (1958), who stated it is a nomen confusum.

 

S. incarnatum Schw. 1832

 

Sporotrichum incarnatum Schw. - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. 4 (N.S.): 272. 1832 ("1831").

 

Nomen dubium. The type material (PH) does not contain a fungus which agrees with the description. Many ellipsoidal to cylindrical conidia were seen, 14-20 x 7-9 µm, sometimes with a single septum.

 

S. incrustans Sacc. 1882

 

Sporotrichum incrustans Sacc. - Michelia 2: 553. 1882 (figured in Fungi italici autographice delineati, f. 745. 1881).

 

Nomen dubium. The type specimen (PAD) on Hedera helix contains mainly conidia, which are hyaline, thin-walled, cylindrical to fusoid, 11-13(-14) x 4-4.5(-5) µm, occasionally 1-septate, with 1-3 oil drops. Conidiogenous structures were very rare, but indicated a species of Ramularia or Ovularia. [p. 63]

 

S. indicum Castellani 1908

 

Sporotrichum indicum Castellani - J. trop. Med. Hyg. 11: 261. 1908 = S. beurmannii Matruchot & Ramond var. indicum (Castellani) Beurmann & Gougerot - Revue Méd. Hyg. trop. 7: 190. 1910 = Rhinocladium indicum (Castellani) Verdun - Précis Parasitol. éd. 2, p. 678. 1913 = Rhinotrichum indicum (Castellani) Ota 1927 - Jap. J. Dermatol. Urol. 27: 928. 1927.

 

The species is considered a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins (de Hoog, 1974).

 

S. infestans (Moses & Vianna) Sartory 1922

 

Proteomyces infestans Moses & Vianna - Mems Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 5: 192. 1913 = Sporotrichum infestans (Moses & Vianna) Sartory - Champ. paras. Homme Anim., p. 655. 1922 = Mycoderma infestans (Moses & Vianna) da Fonseca & de Arêa Ledo - Bras.-med. 43: 667. 1929 = Trichosporon infestans (Moses & Vianna) Ciferri & Redaelli - Arch. Mikrobiol. 6: 9. 1935 = Geotrichum infestans (Moses & Vianna) Brumpt - Précis Parasitol. éd. 5, p. 1738. 1936.

 

The species is a synonym of Trichosporon beigelii (Küchenmeister & Rabenh.) Sacc. & Trav. fide do Carmo-Sousa in Lodder (1970) (as T. cutaneum).

 

S. inosculans Berk. 1836

 

Sporotrichum inosculans Berk. - English Flora 5, 2, p. 346. 1836.

 

Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in K. Berkeley mentioned Botrytis umbrina Klotzsch in Hook. Herb. as synonymous. According to Hughes (1958), the latter would be Trichosporum umbrinum Fr. (as "Klotzsch").

 

S. inquinatum Link 1818

 

Sporotrichum inquinatum Link -Jb. Gewächsk. 1,1: 172. 1818.

 

The type specimen (B) contains Chrysosporium merdarium (Link : Fr.) Carmichael as stated by Fries (1832).

 

S. intertextum Schw. 1832

 

Sporotrichum intertextum Schw. - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. 4 (N.S.): 271. 1832 ("1831") = Botryobasidium intertextum (Schw.) Jülich & Stalpers - Resup. non-por. Aphylloph. temp. north. Hemisph. p. 56.1980.

 

The type specimen (PH) is a species of Botryobasidium, previously known as B. angustisporum (Boidin) J. Erikss.

 

S. isabellinum P. Karst. 1892

 

Sporotrichum isabellinum P. Karst. - Bidr. Känn. Finl. Nat. Folk 51: 374. 1892.

 

The type specimen (H) contains well-developed Ptychogaster citrinus Boud. together with its teleomorph Tyromyces (Oligoporus) rennyi (Berk. & Br.) Ryv. Karsten (1892) identified the teleomorph as Bjerkandera destructor. [p. 64]

 

S. isariae Petch 1931

 

Sporotrichum isariae Petch - Naturalist (Hull) 1931: 102. 1931. = Tritirachium isariae (Petch) de Hoog - Persoonia 7: 437. 1973.

 

The type material (K) contains a species of Tritirachium, which was transferred and described by de Hoog (1973).

 

S. isarioides Petch 1931

 

Sporotrichum isarioides Petch - Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 16: 58. 1931 = Sporothrix isarioldes (Petch) de Hoog - Stud. Mycol. 7: 23. 1974.

 

Type specimen in (K). The species belongs to Sporothrix and was transferred and described in detail by de Hoog (1974).

 

S. jeanselmei Brumpt & Langeron 1910

 

Sporotrichum jeanselmei Brumpt & Langeron Prêcis Parasitol. éd. 1, p. 889-890. 1910 (also published in Bull. Mém. Soc. méd. Hôp. Paris, 1910) = Rhinocladium jeanselmei (Brumpt & Langeron) Verdun-Précis Parasitol. éd. 2, p. 678. 1913 = Rhinotrichum jeanselmei (Brumpt & Langeron) Ota-Jap. J. Dermatol. Urol. 28: 5. 1928.

 

The species is a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins fide de Hoog (1974), not to be confused with Exophiala jeanselmei (Langeron) McGinnis & Padhye (= Torula jeanselmei Langeron).

 

S. jubatum Link 1816

 

Sporotrichum jubatum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 35. 1816 = Dematium jubatum (Link) Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 132. 1824 = Alytosporium jubatum (Link) Steudel - Nomen cl. bot. p. 55. 1824.

 

Nomen dubium. The type material (B) contains sterile mycelium only, as stated by Fries (1832, index) and Hughes (1958).

 

S. keratinolyticum Dominik & Majchrowicz 1965

 

Sporotrichum keratinolyticum Dominik & Majchrowicz - Ekol. Pol., Ser. A, 13: 433. 1965 (also in Mycopath. Mycol. appl. 28: 216. 1966)

 

The name is a synonym of Trichophyton ajelloi (Vanbreuseghem) Ajello fide Taylor (1970).

 

S. kirchneri O. Rostrup 1916

 

Sporotrichum kirchneri O. Rostrup - Dansk bot. Ark. 2(5): 39. 1916 = Acremonium kirchneri (O. Rostrup) G. Müller - Wiss. Z. Humboldt-Univ., Berl. Math.-Nat.Wiss. R. 0314:768. 1965.

 

Type specimen not found, not in C or CP. Gams (1971) considered it a synonym of Verticillium lecanii (Zimm.) Viégas, but the species is more likely to belong to Hirsutella (R. A. Samson, pers. comm.). [p. 65]

 

S. lactis Pirotta & Riboni 1879

 

Sporotrichum lactis Pirotta & Riboni - Arch. Lab. bot. critt. Univ. Pavia, Ser. 2: 316. 1879.

 

Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant. The diagnosis and figure do not give sufficient information to allow a positive identification.

 

S. laeticolor Cooke & Massee 1891

 

Sporotrichum laeticolor Cooke & Massee apud Cooke - Grevillea 20: 38. 1891.

 

The type material (K) contains Sporotrichum aurantiacum.

 

S. laetum Link 1818

 

Sporotrichum laetum Link - Jb. Gewächsk. l, 1: 174. 1818.

 

      The type specimen (B) contains yellowish resin and sterile mycelium. The name is a nomen dubium, as also stated by Hughes (1958).

 

S. lanatum Wallroth 1833

 

      Sporotrichum lanatum Wallroth - Fl. Crypt. German. 2, 4:276.1833.

 

      Hughes (1958) identified the type specimen (STR) as Trichoderma vulpinum Fuckel. Although S. lanatum is older, he did not propose a new combination. Rifai (1969) mentioned neither of these names.

S. lapidum Pers. 1822

 

      Sporotrichum lapidum Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 78. 1822 (basionym) = Tomentella lapidum (Pers.) Stalpers comb. nov.

 

      The type material (L) contains a rather old specimen of Tomentella. Basidiocarp tomentose. Hymenial surface rusty brown to fuscous, becoming nearly black in KOH. Subiculum darker than hymenial surface. Hyphal strands present, not abundant. Subicular hyphae brown, 4-6.5 µm wide, thick-walled (wall up to 2.5 µm thick), often encrusted, with clamps. Basidia not seen. Spores yellowish brown, thick-walled, globose to rarely subglobose, 7-8 µm diam., echinulate to aculeate.

      The species is better known as T. violaceofusca (Sacc.) M. J. Larsen or T. trachychaetes (Ellis & Everh.) M. J. Larsen. Wakefield (note on sheet) considered it as "possibly a form of Tomentella spongiosa (Schw.) Bourd. & Galz., but the colour is more rusty brown than in that species". Until 1974 the general concept of T. spongiosa (excl. type, fide Larsen, 1974) fitted this species.

 

S. larvatum Peck 1879

      Sporotrichum larvatum Peck - Rep. N.Y. St. Mus. nat. Hist. 32: 44.1879 = S. larvicola Peck - Bull. N.Y. St. Mus. 1: 18. 1887 (as "larvicolum", substitute name).

 

      The type material contains Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. fide de Hoog (1972). [p. 66]

 

S. larvicola Peck 1887

 

      See under S. larvatum.

 

S. latebrarum (Acharius) Link 1818

 

      Pulverarium latebrarum Acharius 1814 - Synopsis methodica Lichenum, p. 331. 1814 = Sporotrichum latebrarum (Acharius) Link-Jb. GeWächsk. 1,1: 171. 1818.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not found. The species is probably a lichen, as indicated by Fries (1832).

 

S. lateritium Ehrenb. : Fr. 1818

 

      Sporotrichum lateritium Ehrenb. - Sylyae mycol. berol. p. 11. 1818 = Botrytis lateritia (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 402. 1832 [non B. lateritia Schw. 1832] = Verticillium lateritium (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Rabenh. Deutsche Krypt. Floral: 100. 1844.

 

      The species is a synonym of Verticillium luteo-album (Link : Fr.) Subram., the anamorph of Nectria inventa Pethybr., as stated by Hughes (1958, as V. tenerum).

S. laxum Nees : Fr. 1817

 

      Sporotrichum laxum Nees - System Pilze Schwämme, p. 49. 1817 = Sporotrichum laxum Nees : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 424. 1832.

 

      Nomen dubium. Saccardo (1886) considered the species as synonymous with Geotrichum candidum Link. One of the specimens collected by Link (B) was Sporotrichum pruinosum Gilman & Abbott, another from Jaap (B) is Trechispora invisitata (H. S. Jacks.) Liberta.

 

S. lecanii Peck 1891

 

      Sporotrichum lecanii Peck - Rep. N.Y. St. Mus. nat. Hist. 44: 25. 1891.

 

      The type material (NYS) contains a well preserved fungus. Colonies effused, whitish to cream-coloured, pulverulent. Hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, 1.5-2.5 µm wide. Conidiogenous cells typically orthotropic, but incidentally plagiotropic, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, tapering towards the tip, 8-16 x 1.5-2(-2.5) µm; apical part polyphialidic, forming conidia by sympodially arranged phialides, usually 2-4. Phialides cylindrical, up to 2 µm long. conidia hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, narrowly ellipsoidal to nearly cylindrical, 4-6.5 x 1.5-2.5 µm. On Lecanium sp.

      The species seems related to Hirsutella or Blastotrichum aranearum Petch. A revision of this group of fungi is necessary to clarify the taxonomical position of S. lecanii.

 

S. lecante de Beurmann & Gougerot 1922

 

      Sporotrichum lecante de Beurmann & Gougerot apud Sartory - Champ. paras. Homme Anim. 1922 (not seen, citation from Müller, 1965). Nomen nudum. [p. 67]

 

      The species was only mentioned by Sartory as a synonym of Sporotrichum gougerotii Matruchot (fide Müller, 1965).

 

S. lesnei (Vuill.) Castellani & Chalmers 1919

 

      Rhinocladium lesnei Vuill. - Bull. Séanc. Soc. Sci. Nancy 11: 143.1910 = Sporotrichum lesnei (VuilL) Castellani & Chalmers - Manual of tropical Medicine, ed. 3, p. 1121. 1919 = Graphium lesnei (Vuill.) Mason Mycol. Pap. 4: 94.1937.

 

      A synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins fide Müller (1965) according to the original diagnosis.

 

S. lettauianum Bachman 1926

 

      Sporotrichum lettauianum Bachmann - Hedwigia 66: 336. 1926.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type specimen (W) does not contain an identifiable fungus (Hawksworth, 1979).

 

S. lichenicola Berk. & Br. 1875

 

      Sporotrichum lichenicola Berk. & Br. J. Linn. Soc. (London) 14: 102. 1875.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (K) contains conidia of Acremonium or Verticillium, but the species is not identifiable. Hawksworth (1979) suggested Verticillium lecanii (Zimm.) Viégas growing on insect debris on a lichen. The name is not to be confused with Acremonium lichenicola W. Gams.

 

S. lipsiense Benedek 1926

 

      Sporotrichum lipsiense Benedek - Derm. Wschr. 83: 1695. 1926 = Rhinotrichum lipsiense (Benedek) Ota - Jap. J. Derm. Urol. 27: 929.1927 = Rhinoctadium lipsiense (Benedek) Brumpt - Précis Parasitol. éd. 6, p. 1836. 1949.

 

      The name was placed in synonymy with Geomyces pannorum (Link) Sigler & Carmichael (Taylor, 1970) because Müllers strain (CBS 359.29) was G. pannorum. This strain is not the type strain. The original diagnosis does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. luteo-album Link : Fr. 1809

 

      Sporotrichum luteo-album Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 13. 1809 = Sporotrichum luteo-album Link : Fr. Syst. mycol. 3: 424. 1832 = Verticillium luteo-album (Link : Fr.) Subram. - Hyphomycetes, p. 649. 1971.

 

      The type material (B) contains Verticillium luteo-album, which according to the revised Art. 13 ICBN, is the correct name for the species also known as Verticillium tenerum (Nees : Fr.) Link.

 

S. luteo-album Thüm. 1879

 

      Sporotrichum luteo-album Thüm. - Fungi pomicoli, p. 21. 1879 = Sporotrichum thuemeni Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 104.1886. [p. 68]

 

See under S. thuemeni.

 

S. lutescens Schw. 1832

 

      Sporotrichum lutescens Schw. - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. 4 (N.S.): 272. 1832 ("1831").

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (PH) contains a species reminiscent of Botryobasidium sp. or Haplotrichum sp. Basidia, spores and conidia are lacking, only yellowish thick-walled subicular hyphae up to 7 µm wide are present. Schweinitz (1832) considered the species related to S. candidum and S. obducens, both athelioid basidiomycetes.

 

S. lyococcos Ehrenb. : Fr. 1818 (Fig. 14a)

 

      Sporotrichum lyococcos Ehrenb. - Sylvae mycol. berol. p. 22. 1818 (basionym) = Collarium lyococcos (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 442. 1832 (as “lyococcum ") = Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Vuill. var. lyococcos (Ehrenb. : Fr.) Stalpers & Schipper comb. nov.

 

      The type material (B) contains a species of Rhizopus. Sporangiophores brown, strongly curved apically (120-180 degrees), about 25 µm wide in the upper part, at least 200 µm long. Sporangiophore wall distincly thickened, most strongly at the inner side of the curvature (up to 7 µm). Intact sporangia black, about 250 µm diam. Columella subglobose to applanate, 150-200 µm diam. Spores subglobose to broadly ellipsoidal, angular, striate, 9-14 x 7-12.5 µm. Rhizoids not seen.

      The material agrees exactly with Bainier’s (1882) description of Rhizopus reflexus Bain. Hughes (1958), probably misled by Fries (1832), considered it Monilia sp., but Ehrenberg’s (1818) diagnosis "sporidiis in arcervos globosos raros collectis in aqua diffluentibus nigris" clearly points towards Rhizopus and not Monilia.

 

 

 

Fig. 14. a. Sporotrichum lyococcos, type, 2200 x ; b. Sporotrichum navale, CBS 453.80, type strain, 2600 x.

 

S. macularum Link 1824

 

      Sporotrichum macularum Link Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 20.1824.

 

      Nomen dubium. The name is based on Himantia pulchella Pers. (1822). The [p. 69] type material (L) does not contain an identifiable fungus. Fries (1828, 1832) subsequently considered it to be Asterostroma rosae Fr. and a Pyrenomycete.

 

S. malagense Thüm. 1879

 

      Sporotrichum malagense Thüm. - Flora 62: 126. 1879 (basionym) = Talaromyccs malagensis (Thüm.) Stalpers & Samson comb. nov.

 

      Stolk and Samson (1972) considered the name a synonym of Talaromyces udagawae Stolk & Samson. They found the type material in W to be sterile, but material in L belonged to that species; they considered S. malagense a nomen dubium.

 

      Material preserved in BR is authentic and indicated "type". It agrees with the original diagnosis and contains both cleistothecia from Talaromyces udagawae and its anamorph Penicillium udagawae Stolk & Samson. The diagnosis includes only the teleomorph (it refers to the cleistothecia). There is no reason to maintain the status "nomen dubium" for this species. If synonymy with T. luteus (Zukal) C.R. Benjamin as proposed by Pitt (1979) is accepted, then T. malagensis is also the correct name for this taxon.

 

S. malorum Kidd & Beaumont 1924

 

      Sporotrichum malorum Kidd & Beaumont - Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 10: 111. 1924 = Phialophora malorum (Kidd & Beaumont) McColloch - Phytopathology 32: 1094. 1942.

 

      This species is correctly placed in Phialophora (Schol-Schwarz, 1970).

 

S. mansonii (Castell.) Toro 1932

 

      Microsporum mansonii Castell. 1905 - Br. med. J. 2: 1271. 1905 (as `Microsporon mansoni’) = Foxia mansonii (Castell.) Castell - J. trop. Med. Hyg. 11: 261. 1908 = Malassezia mansonii (Castell.) Verdun - Précis Parasitol. hum. éd. 2, p. 698. 1912 = Cladosporium mansonii (Castell.) Castell. & Chalmers - Manual of tropical Medicine, p. 1100. 1919 = Torula mansonii (Castell.) Vuill. - C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 89: 406. 1929 = Sporotrichum mansonii (Castell.) Toro - Sci. Survey Porto Rico Virgin IsL, N. Y. Acad. Sci. 8: 222. 1932 = Dematium mansonii (Castell.) Dodge - Medical Mycology, p. 678. 1935 = Aureobasidium mansonii (Castell.) W. B. Cooke - Mycopath. Mycol. appl. 17: 34.1962 = Rhinocladiella mansonii (Castell.) Schol-Schwarz - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 34: 122.1968 = Exophiala mansonii (Castell.) de Hoog - Stud. Mycol. 15: 114. 1977 = Wangiella mansonii (Castell.) McGinnis ex Bièvre & Mariat - Bull. Soc. fr. Mycol. méd. 8: 127. 1979 (invalid combination ).

 

      McGinnis (1977) considered the name a nomen dubium. According to him the original description is based upon Pityrosporum orbiculare Gordon, but later the name was used for different fungi, viz. Exophiala jeanselmei (Brumpt & Langeron) McGinnis & Padhye and Wangiella dermatitidis (Kano) McGinnis. De Hoog (1977) considered both names to belong to a single species, Exophiala mansonii. De Hoog (in Howard, 1983) also doubted McGinnis’ interpretation of the original diagnosis, as no colour was mentioned there and Castellani later identified a black strain as Microsporum mansonii. [p. 70]

 

S. maritimum Sutherland 1916

 

      Sporotrichum maritimum Sutherland - New Phytol. 15: 43. 1916.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in K. The original description gives the impression of a species belong ing to Acremonium or Verticillium.

 

S. martinekii Prihoda 1961

 

      Sporotrichum martinekii Prihoda - Ceská Mykol. 15: 153. 1961.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in PRM. The description and drawing suggest a species of Ovularia Sacc.

 

S. maydis Garovaglio 1874

 

      Sporotrichum maydis Garovaglio - Archiv. trienn. Lab. bot. crittog. Pavia 1: 39. 1874 ("1873") = Trichosporum maydis (Garovaglio) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 293. 1886 (as "Trichosporium") = Nigrospora maydis (Garovaglio) Jech - Ceská Mykol. 17: 14. 1963.

     

      Type not seen, not in PAD. The species was described by Jechová (1963) and is probably a synonym of Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Br.) Petch.

 

S. membranaceum P. Karst. 1883

 

      Sporotrichum membranaceum P. Karst. - Meddn Soc. Fauna Fl. fenn. 9: 112. 1883.

 

      The type specimen (H) is sterile Laeticorticium lundellii J. Erikss. (kindly confirmed by J. Eriksson). The spores described by Karsten (ellipsoidal, 9 x 6-7 µm, on denticles) probably belonged to another fungus, because the probasidia, which roughly agree in shape and size with the description of the spores, are not formed on denticles. The name is considered a nomen confusum.

 

S. mentagrophytes (Robin) Sacc. 1886

 

      Microsporon mentagrophytes Robin - Hist. nat. Végétaux paras. Homme Anim. p. 129. 1853 = Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Robin) Blanchard - 1896 (not found) = Sporotrichum mentagrophytes (Robin) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 100. 1886 = Ectotrichophyton mentagrophytes (Robin) Castell. & Chalmers - Manual trop. Med. ed. 3, p. 1005. 1919 = Ctenomyces mentagrophytes (Robin) Langeron & Milochevitch - Annls Parasit. hum. comp. 8: 484. 1930 = Spiralia mentagrophytes (Robin) Grigorakis - C. r. Séanc. Soc. Biol. 109: 186. 1932.

 

      Type probably not extant, but there is a general agreement about its identity. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a well-known causal agent of ringworm.

 

S. merdarium Link : Fr. 1818

 

      Sporotrichum merdarium Link - Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 176. 1818 = Sporotrichum merdarium Link : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 423. 1832 = Chrysosporium merdarium (Link : Fr.) Carmichael-Can. J. Bot. 40: 1160. 1962.

 

      The type specimen (B) contains a fungus identical with Chrysosporium corii Corda, the type species of Chrysosporium, recently redescribed by Carmichael (1962) and Van Oorschot (1980). [p. 71]

 

S. microspermum P. Karst. 1892

 

      Sporotrichum microspermum P. Karst. - Hedwigia 31: 298. 1892.

 

      The type material (H) contains Trichoderma polysporum (Link : Fr.) Rifai, as stated by Hughes (1958, as Trichoderma sporulosum (Link) Hughes) and Rifai (1969).

 

S. minimum Speg. 1882

 

      Sporotrichum minimum Speg. - An. Soc. cient. argent. 13: 24. 1882 = Trichoderma minimum (Speg.) G. Müller - Wiss. Z. Humboldt-Univ. Berl., Math.-nat. Reihe 14: 775. 1965.

 

      The type material (LPS) contains Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. fide de Hoog (1972). Müller’s (1965) combination is based on a secondary collection described by Pettit (1895). He incorrectly cited the basionym as S. minimum Speg. ex Pettit.

 

S. minutissimum (Burchardt) Sacc. 1886

 

      Microsporum minutissimum Burchardt - 1859 (not seen) = Sporotrichum minutissimum (Burchardt) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 100. 1886 = Microsporoides minutissimus (Burchardt) Neveu-Lemaire - Précis Parasitol. hum. 1906 (fide Neveu-Lemaire, 1921) = Discomyces minutissimus (Burchardt) Verdun - Précis Parasitol. hum. p. 607. 1907 = Actinomyces minutissimus (Burchardt) Brumpt - Précis Parasitol. éd. 4, p. 1199. 1927 = Oospora minutissima (Burchardt) Ridet - Les Oosporas, les oosporoses, p. 68. 1911 (thesis) = Nocardia minutissima (Burchardt) Castell. & Chalmers - Manual trop. Med. p.819. 1913 = Proactinomyces minutissimus (Burchardt) Krassilnikov – “Bestimmungs-buch der Strahlenpilze" (in Russ.), 1941 (fide Krassilnikov (1959) = Corynebacterium minutissimum (Burchardt) Sarkany, Taplin & Blanc - Arch. Dermatol. 85: 578. 1962 [non C. minutissimum Welsch & Thibaut 1948].

 

      The species is now recognized as belonging to Corynebacterium and is the causal agent of erythrasma.

 

S. minutulum Speg. 1880

 

      Sporotrichum minutulum Speg. - An. Soc. cient. argent. 10: 62. 1880.

 

      The type material (LPS) contains a species of Malbranchea, probably M. arcuata Sigler & Carmichael.

 

S. minutum Grev. 1822

 

      Sporotrichum minutum Grev. - Mem. Wernerian Soc. 4: 68. 1822.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not found, not in E or K. The original description and drawing do not give a clue to its identity. Fries (1832) considered it a synonym of Sporotrichum laxum Nees : Fr. [p. 72]

 

S. molle Link 1816

 

      Sporotrichum molle Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8:35.1816 = Alytosporium molle (Link) Steudel - Nomen cl. bot. 1, p. 55.1824.

     

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in B or L. The original description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. murinum Link 1818

 

      Sporotrichum murinum Link - Jahrb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 173. 1818 = Sporotrichum murinum Link Fr. 1832 - Syst. mycol. 3: 421. 1832 = Trichosporum murinum (Link : Fr.) Sacc. 1881 - Fungi italici autogr. delin. t. 740. 1881. Description in Syll. Fung. 4: 291. 1886 (as "Trichosporium”).

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not found, not in B or L. The original diagnosis does not give a clue to its identity. Fries (1832) thought it to be related to S. griseum.

 

S. muris (Gluge & d’Udekem) Sacc. 1893

 

      Microsporum muris Gluge & d’Udekem - Bull. Acad. r. Belg., Cl. Sci. 3: 338. 1857 = Sporotrichum muris (Gluge & d’Udekem) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 10: 533. 1893 = Malassezia muris (Gluge & d’Udekem) Escomel - Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 12:350. 1924 = Achorion muris (Gluge & d’Udekem) Dodge - Medical Mycology, p. 555. 1935.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant. According to the protologue, the species would belong to Trichophyton. It has sometimes been synonymized with T. quinckeanum (Zopf) Skinner et al., which, however, would be a later synonym. Müller (1965) also considered it a nomen dubium.

 

S. musarum Torrend 1914

 

      Sporotrichum musarum Torrend- Broteria 12: 68. 1914.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in LISU. The description points to a Penicillium-like fungus.

 

S. muscorum Link 1816

 

      Sporotrichum muscorum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 35. 1816.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not in B or L. Nees (1817) mentioned it as a synonym of his new species Acrothamnium violaceum Nees, without discussion. Because the original material of S. muscorum was sent to Link by Nees, both names are probably based upon the same specimen, which is the type of Acrothamnium Nees (1817, as "Acrotamnium").

      Hughes (1958) considered it a basidiomycete and Donk (1962) suggested Helicobasidium brebissonii (Desm.) Donk (= H. purpureum Pat.). Judging from the description and drawing it could also belong to Tomentella Pat.

 

S. muscorum Pers. 1822

 

      Sporotrichum muscorum Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 80.1822 [non S. muscorum Link 1816]. [p. 73]

 

      Nomen dubium. The type specimen (L) contains only two-celled ellipsoidal conidia. Hughes (1958) examined a specimen in B, which he identified as Costantinella terrestris (Link) Hughes. Fries (1832, index) considered it a sterile mycelium.

 

S. mycophilum Link : Fr. 1818

 

      Sporotrichum mycophilum Link - Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 179. 1818 = Sporotrichum mycophilum Link : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 422. 1832.

 

      The type material (B) contains several fungi, one of them being Sepedonium chrysospermum (Bull. : Fr.) Link, which agrees better with the original diagnosis ("sporulis globosis rubris") than Verticillium luteo-album (Link : Fr.) Subram., the species with which Hughes (1958, as V. tenerum) identified S. mycophilum.

 

S. mycophilum (Pers.) Spreng. 1827

 

      Uredo mycophila Pers. - Usteri’s Annalen der Botanik 15 Stuck: 16. 1795 = Sepedonium mycophilum (Pers.) Nees - System Pilze Schwämme, p. 44. 1817 = Trichoderma mycophilum (Pers.) Schw. - Schr. naturf. Ges. Leipzig 1: 76. 1822 = Sporotrichum mycophilum (Pers.) Spreng. - Linn. Syst. Veg. 16, 4: 549. 1827.

 

      The species is Sepedonium chrysospermum (Bull. : Fr.) Link.

 

S. myriosporum P. Karst. 1891

 

      Sporotrichum myriosporum P. Karst. - Meddn Soc. Fauna Fl. fenn. 18: 74. 1891.

 

      The type specimen (H) contains Trichoderma hamatum (Bon.) Bainier.

 

S. narcissi Tochinai & Shimada 1930

 

      Sporotrichum narcissi Tochinai & Shimada - Trans. Sapporo nat. Hist. Soc. 11: 124. 1930 = Trichoderma narcissi (Tochinai & Shimada) Tochinai & Shimada - Trans. Sapporo nat. Hist. Soc. 12: 24. 1931.

     

      The type strain, CBS 316.31, is intermediate between Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and T. koningii Oudem.

 

S. navale Joly 1961 (Fig. 14b)

 

      Sporotrichum navale Joly - Revue Mycol. 26: 98. 1961.

 

      The type strain, CBS 453.80, is Wallemia sebi (Fr.) v. Arx.

 

S. nigrum (Link : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

      Botrytis nigra Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3:14. 1809 = Virgaria nigra (Link) Nees - System Pilze Schwämme, p. 54. 1817 = Sporotrichum nigrum (Link : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 416. 1832 = Trichosporium nigrum (Link : Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 492. 1849.

 

      This is the type species of Virgaria. [p. 74]

 

S. nigrum (Link) Link 1816

 

      Dematium nigrum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 21. 1809 = Sporotrichum nigrum (Link) Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 35. 1816 [non S. nigrum (Link : Fr.) Fr.] = Alytosporium nigrum (Link) Steudel - Nomencl. bot. 1, p. 55. 1824.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (B) contains sterile mycelium only, as stated earlier by Fries (1832, index) and Hughes (1958). Saccardo and Sydow (1899) confused this species with Rhacodium nigrum Schum.

 

S. nigrum Preuss 1851

 

      Sporotrichum nigrum Preuss - Linnaea 24: 108. 1851 [non S. nigrum (Link : Fr.) Fr. 1832 nec S. nigrum (Link) Link 1816].

 

      The type specimen (B) contains Rhinocladiella atrovirens Nannf.

 

S. nitens (Pers.) Link 1824

 

      Himantia nitens Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 91. 1822 = Sporotrichum nitens (Pers.) Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 3. 1824.

 

      The material in B from Link’s herbarium is labelled "Himantia nitens", probably in Persoon’s handwriting. The material, which was also examined by Hughes, is considered to be the type. It contains an Athelia-like fungus (with basidia and clamps, but no basidiospores) and rhizomorphs (hyphal strands) with many crystals. The name is considered a nomen dubium.

 

S. niveum Allesch. & P. Henn. 1897

 

      Sporotrichum niveum Allesch. & P. Henn. - Biblthca bot. 42: 243. 1897.

 

      The type material (B) contains cream-coloured tufts of mycelium, consisting of thick-walled, hyaline hyphae. There are also hyaline, globose conidia (2-3 µm diam) which seem to be associated with thin-walled, narrow hyphae, probably belonging to a mycoparasite. The name is a nomen confusum.

 

S. niveum Kobayasi 1939

 

      Sporotrichum niveum Kobayasi - Bull. biogeogr. Soc. Jap. 9: 288. 1939 [non S. niveum Allesch. & P. Henn. 1897] = Didymobotryopsis nivea (Kobayasi) G. Müller - Wiss. Z. Humboldt-Univ. Berl. Math.-nat. Reihe 14: 777. 1965.

 

      The species is probably synonymous with Sporothrix isarioides (Petch) de Hoog fide de Hoog (1974).

 

S. obducens Link 1818

 

      S. obducens Link - Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 168. 1818.

 

      Nomen dubium. There are two collections of Link in B. One, which is considered the type and which has also been examined by Hughes, contains sterile basidiomycetous mycelium. The other specimen is Athelia fibulata M. P. Christ. Fries (1832, index) also considered it a doubtful species. [p. 75]

 

 

Fig. 15. Sporotrichum obducens Allescher, type; a. conidia; b. conidiophores. Bar represents 10 µm.

 

S. obducens Allesch. 1895 (Fig. 15)

 

      Sporotrichum obducens Allesch. apud P. Henn. - Hedwigia 34: 115. 1895 [non S. obducens Link 1818] = Sporotrichum allescheri Sacc. & Sydow - Syll. Fung. 14:1051. 1899.

 

      The type material (B), collected by E. Ule in Goyaz, Brasil, on decaying leaves of a species of the Fabaceae, is in good condition. It contains a Cylindrocladium-like fungus with sympodial instead of phialidic conidiogenesis (Fig. 15).

      Colony effused, white to somewhat cream-coloured, farinaceous. Conidiophores hyaline to pale yellowish, typically thick-walled and sometimes slightly encrusted with granular material, cylindrical, about 80 µm long or longer (never intact), 4-6 µm wide, terminating with a knob-like expansion on which 4-10 conidiogenous cells are present. Conidiogenous cells cylindrical to flask-shaped, 18-40 x 3.5-5 µm, basally sometimes inflated up to 6.5 µm, apically with scars or very small denticles on which the conidia have been formed sympodially. Conidia narrowly ellipsoidal to cylindrical, rarely narrowly ovoid or constricted in the middle, hyaline, thin-walled, 7-15 x 2.5-5 µm, generally with 2 oil-drops, which are only absent in the largest conidia. The former point of attachment is clearly visible. With age the conidiogenous cell may become septate near the base.

 

S. ochraceum (Corda) Sacc. 1886

 

      Chromelosporium ochraceum Corda - Sturm Deutschl. Fl. 3, 3: 81. 1833 = Sporotrichum ochraceum (Corda) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 105. 1886 = Ostracoderma ochraceum (Corda) Hughes - Can. J. Bot. 36: 792. 1958.

 

      This is the type species of Chromelosporium Corda. The type specimen (PRM) was redescribed by Hennebert (1973). [p. 76]

 

S. ochrokeratinophilum Matsushima 1975

 

      Sporotrichum ochrokeratinophilum Matsushima - Icones Microfungorum a Matsushima lectorum, p. 143. 1975.

 

      This is a synonym of Myceliophthora vellerea (Sacc. & Speg.) v. Oorschot (van Oorschot, 1980).

 

S. oligocarpum (Corda) Rabenh. 1844

      Capillaria oligocarpa Corda 1837 - Icon. Fung. 1: 10. 1837 = Sporotrichum oligocarpum (Corda) Rabenh. Deutschl. Krypt. Fl. 1: 79. 1844.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in PRM. The description and drawing do not allow a positive identification.

 

S. olivaceum (Link : Fr.) Fr. 1832.

 

      Botrytis olivacea Link Linn. - Sp. Pl. 6: 55. 1824 [non B. olivacea (Corda) Sacc. 1886] = Sporotrichum olivaceum (Link : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 417. 1832 = Trichosporum olivaceum (Link : Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 492. 1849. = Chrysosporium olivaceum (Link : Fr.) J. Taylor - Mycologia 62: 823. 1970.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (B) does not contain an identifiable fungus, as also stated by van Oorschot (1980).

 

S. olivaceum Pers. 1822

 

      Sporotrichum olivaceum Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 79. 1822.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type specimen (L) contains a Tomentella, which is not identifiable to the species level. Fries (1832) considered it a lichen.

 

S. ollare Pers. 1822

 

      Sporotrichum ollare Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 81. 1822 = S. roseum Link : Fr. 1832 [non S. roseum (Rebentisch) Pers. 1822].

 

      Persoon (1822) apparently proposed the name change because Hyphelia rosea Rebentisch was decribed earlier. Link (1824) accepted this, but Fries (1832) did not. S. ollare Pers. has not been sanctioned and therefore is a superfluous name (Art. 63 ICBN). It should not be confused with Dematium ollare Pers., which is Chromelosporium fulvum (Link : Fr.) McGinty & al.

 

S. oosporum Ehrenb. 1818

 

      S. oosporum Ehrenb. - Sylvae mycol. berol. p. 22. 1818

 

      Fries (1832) considered it a synonym of Sporotrichum fusco-album Link, which is Acladium conspersum (Link : Fr.) Pers. The type material (B, L) does indeed contain this species, as stated by Hughes (1958). [p. 77]

 

S. ovale Rivolta 1873

 

      Sporotrichum ovale Rivolta - Dei parassiti vegetali, p. 564. 1873.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material is probably not extant and the original diagnosis does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. pannicola (Corda) Rabenh. 1844

 

      Capillaria pannicola Corda - Icon. Fung. 1: 10. 1837 = Sporotrichum pannicola (Corda) Rabenh. - Deutschl. Krypt. Fl. 1: 78. 1844 = Chrysosporium pannicola (Corda) van Oorschot & Stalpers - Stud. Mycol. 20: 43. 1980.

 

      The type specimen (PRM) is a species of Chrysosporium, also known as Ch. evolceanui (Randhawa & Sandhu) Garg.

 

S. pannorum Link 1824

 

      Sporotrichum pannorum Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 13. 1824 = Chrysosporium pannorum (Link) Hughes - Can. J. Bot. 36: 749. 1958 = Geomyces pannorum (Link) Sigler & Carmichael- Mycotaxon 4: 377. 1976.

 

      The type material (B) contains Geomyces pannorum, which was well described by Sigler and Carmichael (1976) and van Oorschot (1980).

 

S. pannosum Rabenh. 1854

 

      Sporotrichum pannosum Rabenh. - Hedwigia 1: 46. 1854.

 

      The type material (B) contains numerous brown, thick-walled, ovoid to ellipsoidal basidiospores, 8.5-10 x 5.5-6.5 µm. There are no intact basidia. The species belongs to the Coniophoraceae and may well be Serpula himantioides (Fr.) P. Karst. The spore measurements given by Rabenhorst (18-20 x 10-11 µm) are twice the actual size, probably due to a magnification error.

 

S. paranense Marchionatto 1933

 

      Sporotrichum paranense Marchionatto - Physis, B. Aires 11: 348. 1933 = Beauveria paranensis (Marchionatto) Gösswald - Arb. biol. BundAnst. Land- u. Forstw. 22: 434. 1939 (as (Speg.) Gösswald) = Paecilomyces paranensis (Marchionatto) G. Müller - Wiss. Z. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin, Math.-nat. Reihe 14: 780. 1965.

 

The type specimen (IMI) contains Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorok. fide Samson (1974).

 

S. parasiticum Peck 1892

 

      Sporotrichum parasiticum Peck - Rep. N.Y. St. Mus. nat. Hist. 45: 22. 1892.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type material probably lost, not in NYS. The original diagnosis does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. parietinum Link 1816

 

      Sporotrichum parietinum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 35. 1816 = [p. 78] Trichosporum parietinum (Link) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 295. 1886 (as "Trichosporium ").

 

      Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant, not in B or L. The original diagnosis does not give a clue to the identity of the species.

 

S. parvulum Passerini 1888

 

      S. parvulum Passerini apud Brunaud - J. Hist. nat. Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, Sér. 2, 7: 16. 1888 = Rhinocladium parvulum (Passerini) Grandinetti - Contribuiçao para o estudio da esporotricose em Sao Paolo 1934 (misapplied, cited as (Redaelli) Grandinetti).

 

      Nomen dubium. The type is probably not extant. The diagnosis does not allow a positive identification, but it may well have been Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. The recombination in Rhinocladium was based on a misinterpretation of this species by Redaelli (1925) (van Oorschot, 1980).

 

S. parvulum Brunaud 1897

 

Sporotrichum parvulum Brunaud - Acta Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 52: 148. 1897 [non S. parvulum Passerini 1888] = Sporotrichum brunaudi Nannizzi-Tratt. Micopatol. umana 4: 436.1934.

 

Nomen dubium. Original publication not seen. Müller (1965) also searched for it in vain.

 

S. parvum Szilvinyi 1941

 

      Sporotrichum parvum Szilvinyi - Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde, Abt. 2, 103: 178. 1941.

 

      Type not extant. The diagnosis and drawing refer to a species of Chrysosporium with intercalary and terminal conidia. It is probably Ch. merdarium (Link Fr.) Carmichael, which, however, has larger conidia than indicated by Szilvinyi.

 

S. peckii Sacc. 1892

 

      S. peckii Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 10: 534. 1892.

 

      Name change for Sporotrichum cinereum Peck, see there.

 

S. pellicula Link 1824

 

      Sporotrichum pellicula Link - Linn. Sp. P1.6: 3. 1824.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in B or L. The description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. pereirae Miranda 1936

 

S. pereirae Miranda - Um novo Esporotricado (thesis, as "S. pererai”). 1936. Nomen inval. (Art. 36 ICBN).

 

      Type probably not extant. Original publication not seen. According to Müller (1965) the Latin diagnosis is lacking. He considered it as a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins. [p. 79]

 

S. peribebuyense Speg. 1886

 

      Sporotrichum peribebuyense Speg. - Ana. Soc. cient. argent. 22: 206. 1886.

 

      The type specimen (LPS) contains Beniowskia sphaeroides (Kalchbr. & Cooke) Massee, as stated by Hughes (1958).

 

S. persicae Pollacci 1920

 

      Sporotrichum persicae Pollacci - Atti Ist. bot. Pavia Ser. 2, 17: 205. 1920.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen. The description and figure do not allow a positive identification.

 

S. peteloti (Vincens) Petch 1931

 

      Beauveria peteloti Vincens - Bull. Soc. bot. Fr. 62: 131. 1915 = Sporotrichum peteloti (Vincens) Petch - Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 16: 57. 1931.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in PC. Fassatiová (1966) and de Hoog (1972) also considered it a nomen dubium.

 

S. phalloidearum (Corda) Rabenh. 1844

 

      Capillaria phalloidearum Corda 1837 - Icon. Fung. 1: 10. 1837 = Sporotrichum phalloidearum (Corda) Rabenh. - Deutschl. Krypt. Fl. 1: 80. 1844.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type probably lost, not in PRM. The original description and drawing do not allow a positive identification.

 

S. poae Peck 1902

 

      Sporotrichum poae Peck - Bull. N.Y. St. Mus. 67: 29. 1902 = Fusarium poae (Peck) Wollenweber apud Lewis - Bull. Me agric. Exp. Stn 219: 254. 1913.

 

      This is a well-known species of Fusarium.

 

S. polysporum Link : Fr. 1816

 

      S. polysporum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 34. 1816 = Sporotrichum polysporum Link : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 424. 1832 = Trichoderma polysporum (Link Fr.) Rifai 1969 - Mycol. Pap. 116: 18.1969.

 

      The species is generally recognized as a species of Trichoderma, the anamorph of Hypocrea pachybasidioides Doi.

 

S. praticola Pidoplichko 1950

 

      Sporotrichum praticola Pidoplichko - Mykrobiol. Zh., Kiyev 12: 34.1950 (basionym) = Ugola praticola (Pidoplichko) Stalpers comb. nov.

 

      The type culture, CBS 705.82, is the same as Asterophora lignicola Arnaud, a species which was not validly published (Art. 36 ICBN).

      The genus Asterophora was erected by Ditmar (apud Link, 1809a). Despite the fact that gills were mentioned in the original diagnosis and also later by [p. 80] Fries (1829), Donk (1962) stated: "As a thesis, and inviting criticism, I suggest that these two (Asterophora, Syzygospora) names were merely published as nomina anamorphosium". His reasons were:

1. Fries considered it a gasteromycete, not a hymenomycete.

2. Fries considered the star-shaped chlamydospores as the true spores.

3. "Although normally the type species forms a more or less strongly reduced hymenophore, this portion of the fruitbody was of small importance".

      None of these arguments is very strong, as was also stated by Singer (1975).

Ad 1. There are many examples where Fries’ concepts do not concur with modern taxonomy. For example, he considered the ascomycetous genus Onygena as the closest relative of Asterophora.

Ad 2. Fries did not observe basidiospores, only the ornamented chlamydospores. In fact Fries generally did not observe basidiospores in agarics and this never prevented agaricologists from considering Fries’ agaric names as names of the teleomorphs rather than of sterile anamorphs.

Ad 3. A teleomorph with a reduced hymenophore is subject to the same nomenclatural rules as any other teleomorph.

      Since the protologue clearly contains a description of teleomorphic elements, the name must be considered to be holomorphic, including both an anamorphic and a teleomorphic element. It is thus the name of the whole fungus. It is the oldest available name for the genus which is also known as Nyctalis Fr.

      Another way of reasoning leads to the same conclusion. Fries already mentioned the genus Asterophora in 1821, but only with name and author. This means that he accepted Ditmar’s concept completely.

      The oldest name available for the anamorph is Ugola Adans. (Adanson, 1763). Donk (1962) already discussed the name and considered it as "validly published if the starting point for these fungi had remained 1753".

 

S. pruinosum Gilman & Abbott 1927

 

See p. 18.

 

S. psittacinum Link 1816

 

      Sporotrichum psittacinum Link Mag. - Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 35. 1816.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant, not in B or L. Fries (1832, index) considered it a sterile mycelium.

 

S. pulchellum (Pers.) Duby 1830

 

      Himantia pulchella Pers. - Mycol. eur. 1: 91. 1822 = Sporotrichum pulchellum (Pers.) Duby apud DC. - Bot. Gall. éd. 2, p. 924. 1830.

 

      The type material (L) does not contain an identifiable fungus and the original description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. pullulans Kleb. 1924

 

      Sporotrichum pullulans Kleb. - Ber. dt. bot. Ges. 42: 71. 1924. [p. 81]

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in B. The description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. pulveraria Link 1818

 

      Sporotrichum pulveraria Link - Jb. Gewächsk. 1,1: 176. 1818.

 

      Nomen dubium. No material preserved in B or L. Link (1818) mentioned Lepraria chlorina Ach. as a synonym, but apparently based his description on a collection of his own. Fries (1832, index) considered it a lichen.

 

S. pulverulentum Novobranova 1972

 

      Sporotrichum pulverulentum Novobranova - Nov. Sist. niz. Rast. 9:184. 1972.

 

      This is a synonym of Sporotrichum pruinosum.

 

S. pulviniforme Thüm. 1880

 

      Sporotrichum pulviniforme Thüm. - Hedwigia 18: 190. 1880.

 

      The type specimen (BR) contains Trichoderma polysporum (Link : Fr.) Rifai, as stated by Taylor (1970). The conidia measure 4-6 x 2-3.2 µm, which is too large for T. polysporum according to Rifai (1969).

 

S. punctiforme (DC.) Link 1824

 

      Aegerita punctiformis DC. - Fl. franç. 5: 72. 1815 = Sporotrichum punctiforme (DC.) Link - Linn. Spec. Pl. 6: 11. 1824 = Tuburcina punctiformis (DC.) : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 440. 1832.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not found. The description does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. quercuum Shear 1907

 

      Sporotrichum quercuum Shear - Bull. Torrey bot. Club 34: 306. 1907.

 

      Nomen dubium. The name is based on material of Thümen (Mycoth. univ. nr. 986) which is filed under the name Sporotrichum sulfureum Greville f. quercuum Thümen. However, Thümen never published a diagnosis. The type specimen could not be found, but Shear’s diagnosis points toward Aspergillus or Penicillium.

 

S. radicicola Zimmermann 1902

 

      Sporotrichum radicicola Zimmermann - Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde Abt. 2, 8: 218. 1902 (as "radicicolum”).

 

      Nomen dubium. Type material not seen. The description suggests a species of Trichoderma.

 

S. rhodochroum Link 1818

 

      Aleurisma roseum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 38. 1816 = [p. 82] Sporotrichum rhodochroum Link - Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 177. 1818 [non S. roseum Link 1816]. = Botrytis rhodochroa (Link) Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 121. 1886.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not in B or L. The original diagnosis does not give a clue to its identity. Fries (1832) considered it a synonym of Aleurisma erubescens Nees. Saccardo (1886) mentioned it as a synonym of Sporotrichum sporulosum Link (p. 109) and subsequently transferred it to Botrytis (p. 121).

 

S. roseolum Oudemans & Beijerinck 1903

 

      Sporotrichum roseolum Ouderrans & Beijerinck - Ned. kruidk. Archf 3: 911. 1903.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (L) contains abundant Chrysosporium pannicola (Corda) van Oorschot & Stalpers, but this species does not fit the original diagnosis. Gams (1971) mentioned isolates of Aphanocladium album (Preuss) W. Gams that had been named S. roseolum, and Taylor (1970) considered it a nomen dubium.

 

S. roseum Link : Fr. 1816

 

      Sporotrichum roseum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 8: 35. 1816 = Sporotrichum roseum Link : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3:422. 1832.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (B) does not contain an identifiable fungus. According to Fries (1832) this is the correct name of Sporotrichum ollare, see there.

 

S. roseum (Rebentisch) Pers. 1822

 

      Hyphasma roseum Rebentisch 1804 - Prodromus Florae Neomarchae, p. 397. 1804 = Sporotrichum roseum (Rebentisch) Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 80. 1822 [non S. roseum Link : Fr. 1816].

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen. The original description does not allow a positive identification. Fries (1832) considered it Byssus sp.

 

S. ruberrimum Fr. : Fr. 1832

 

      Sporotrichum ruberrimum Fr. : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 422. 1832.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (UPS) contains reddish mycelium and a species of Aspergillus, possibly A. glaucus.

 

S. rubiginosum Fr. : Fr. 1832

 

      Sporotrichum rubiginosum Fr. : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 417. 1832 = Physospora rubiginosa (Fr. : Fr.) Fr. - Summa Veg. Scand., p. 495. 1849 = Oidium rubiginosum (Fr. : Fr.) Linder - Lloydia 5: 191. 1942 = Haplotrichum rubiginosum (Fr. : Fr.) Hol.-Jech. - Ceská Mykol. 30: 4. 1976

 

      The species belongs to Haplotrichum and is the anamorph of Botryobasidium robustius Pouzar & Jech. [p. 83]

 

S. sagenae Szembel 1927

 

      Sporotrichum sagenae Szembel - Zap. astrakh. Sta. Zashch. Rast, Vredit. 1 (5-6): 59. 1927.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen. The description points to a species of Odiodendron or Geomyces.

 

S. salicinum (Pers. : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

      Dematium salicinum Pers. - Syn. meth. Fung. p. 699. 1801 = Sporotrichum salicium (Pers. : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 421. 1832.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type material probably not extant. The description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. sanguineum Ramírez ex Ramírez 1953

 

      Sporotrichum ?sanguineum Ramírez - Revue Mycol. 17: 215. 1952 (Nomen inval., Art. 36 ICBN) = Sporotrichum sanguineum Ramírez ex Ramírez - Microbiologia esp. 6: 234. 1953 = Sporothrix sanguinea (Ramírez ex Ramírez) J. Taylor - Mycologia 69: 651. 1977 = Hyphozyma sanguinea (Ramírez ex Ramírez) de Hoog & M. Th. Smith - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 47: 349. 1981.

     

      The species belongs to Hyphozyma and was well described by de Hoog and Smith (1981).

 

S. schenckii (Hektoen & Perkins) de Beurmann & Gougerot 1911

 

      Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins - J. exp. Med. 5: 77. 1900 = Sporotrichum schenckii (Hektoen & Perkins) de Beurmann & Gougerot - Archs Parasit. 15: 5. 1911 = Sporotrichum schenckii-beurmannii Greco var. schenckii (Hektoen & Perkins) de Beurmann & Gougerot - Archs Parasit. 15: 38. 1911 = Rhinocladium schenckii Verdun - Précis Parasitol. éd. 2, p. 677. 1913 (as " Schencki”) = Rhinotrichum schenckii (Hektoen & Perkins) Ota - Jap. J. Dermatol. Urol. 27: 921. 1927 = Sporotrichum beurmannii Matruchot & Ramond var. schenckii (Hektoen & Perkins) Redaelli & Cif. - Tratt. Micopatol. umana 5: 452. 1942.

 

      This is the well-known type-species of Sporothrix, the causal agent of sporotrichosis. Ophiostoma stenoceras (Robak) Melin & Nannf. is usually considered to be the teleomorph. The varieties which have also been treated at the species level can be found under their epithet, the others are given below (see also de Hoog, 1974).

 

S. schenckii var. fioccoi Dodge 1935

 

      Sporotrichum schenckii (Hektoen & Perkins) de Beurmann & Gougerot var. fioccoi Dodge - Medical Mycology, p. 808. 1935 = Sporotrichum beurmanii Matruchot & Ramond var. fioccoi (Dodge) Redaelli & Cif. - Tratt. Micopat. humana 5: 481. 1942.

 

      A new name for Sporotrichum epigaeum Brunaud sensu Aschieri, which is a synonym of Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch. [p. 84]

 

S. schenckii-beurmannii Greco 1907

 

      Sporotrichum schenckii-beurmannii Greco - Argent. Med. 45: 699. 1907 = Sporothrix schenckii-beurmannii (Greco) Meyer & Aird - J. infect. Dis. 16: 407. 1915 (combination not validly published).

 

      The name was originally published without a diagnosis. It is generally considered as a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii.

 

S. schoenleini (Lebert) Sacc. 1931

 

      Oidium schoenleini Lebert - Physiol. pathol. 2: 490. 1845 = Achorion schoenleini (Lebert) Remak - Diagnostische and pathogenetische Untersuchungen, p. 13. 1845 = Schoenleinium achorion Johan-Olsen - Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde Abt. 2, 3: 276. 1897 = Grubyella schoenleini (Lebert) Ota & Langeron - Annls. Parasitol. hum. comp. 1: 330. 1923 = Arthrosporia schoenleini (Lebert) Grigorakis - Annls. Sci. nat., Bot. Sèr. 10, 7: 414. 1925 = Sporotrichum schoenleini (Lebert) Sacc. apud Vuill. - Encycl. mycol. 2, p. 69. 1931 = Trichophyton schoenleini (Lebert) Langeron & Milochevitch ex Nannizzi - Tratt. Micopatol. umana 4: 198. 1934 (as "(Lebert) Langeron & Milochevitch").

 

      The species is the causal agent of favus and belongs to Trichophyton. The combination in Trichophyton is generally ascribed to Langeron and Milochevitch (1930), but although these authors explicitly stated that the species belongs to Trichophyton, they did not validly publish the combination.

 

S. schweinitzii Sacc. 1886

 

      Sporotrichum schweinitzii Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 109. 1886 = Stachylidium roseum Schw. - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. (N.S.) 4: 283. 1832 ("1831") [non Sporotrichum roseum Link : Fr. 1816, nec S. roseum (Rebentisch) Pers. 1822].

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (PH) does not contain an identifiable fungus. However, structures resembling oogonia of Pythium were found.

 

S. scotophilum Link 1818

 

      Sporotrichum scotophilum Link-Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 180. 1818.

 

      The type material (B, L) contains Sporendonema purpurascens (Bon.) Mason & Hughes and Chrysosporium merdarium (Link : Fr.) Carmichael. The epithet is generally considered to apply to the latter.

 

S. solubile Schw. 1832

 

      Sporotrichum solubile Schw. - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. (N.S.): 272. 1832 ("1831").

     

      Nomen dubium. The type material (PH) contains only pieces of paper.

 

S. sparsum Link 1818

 

      S. sparsum Link - Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 175. 1818.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (B) contains algae parasitized by a sterile fungus; there are also globose spore-like bodies of about 5 µm diam and some [p. 85] echinulate globose structures. Fries (1832) considered it a synonym of Sporotrichum sulphureum Grev.

 

S. spicatum Delitsch 1943

 

      Sporotrichum spicatum Delitsch - Ergebnisse der theoretischen and angewandten Mikrobiologie. I. Systematik der Schimmelpilze, p. 106. 1943.

 

      Type probably not extant. The description and figures strongly suggest Geotrichum capitatum (Diddens & Lodder) v. Arx.

 

S. sporodochiale v. Arx 1971

 

      Sporotrichum sporodochiale v. Arx - Persoonia 6: 182. 1971.

 

      Despite many efforts to induce the formation of fertile structures, the type strain, CBS 548.70 remained sterile. The species is outside of the present circumscription of Sporotrichum and shall be treated later in a proposed revision of Ptychogaster.

 

S. sporulosum (Link) Link 1818

 

      Aleurisma sporulosum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 19. 1809 = Sporotrichum sporulosum (Link) Link - Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 169. 1818 = Trichoderma sporulosum (Link) Hughes-Can. J. Bot. 36: 820. 1958.

 

      Fries (1832) considered the species a synonym of Aleurisma erubescens Nees : Fr., which Link considered to be a form of Sporotrichum sporulosum. The type specimen (L) clearly belongs to Trichoderma and the epithet is a synonym of T. polysporum (Link : Fr.) Rifai (Rifai, 1969).

 

S. stercorarium Link 1818

 

      Sporotrichum stercorarium Link - Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 178. 1818. = Scopulariopsis stercoraria (Link) Hughes - Can. J. Bot. 36: 803. 1958.

 

      The type material (B) contains a Chrysosporium sp., probably the anamorph of Renispora flavissima Sigler & al. In addition there are also some smooth conidia, which might belong to a species of Scopulariopsis.

      Link (1818, 1824) considered the species to be very close to Chrysosporium merdarium, and the reddish colour ("roseum") of the original diagnosis suggests Chrysosporium rather than Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (Sacc.) Bain., a rough-spored species with more brownish tints, which Hughes (1958) considered as a later synonym. Morton & Smith (1963), who also studied the type specimen, concluded, that the species belonged to Scopulariopsis, but that it had smooth conidia and thus could not be S. brevicaulis. They considered it as unidentifiable on the species level.

      The evidence seems to favour the view that Link had a Chrysosporium, but considering the confusing history of the name it seems inadvisable to reintroduce it. [p. 86]

 

S. stromateum Link 1824

 

      Sporotrichum stromateum Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 3. 1824.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not in B. Fries (1832) considered it "mycelium ".

 

S. stuposum Link 1809

 

      Sporotrichum stuposum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 12. 1809 (basionym) = Alytosporium stuposum (Link) Steudel - Nomen cl. bot. p. 55. 1824. = Tomentella stuposa (Link) Stalpers, comb. nov.

 

      The type material contains a species of Tomentella, which is also known as T. ruttneri Litsch. Basidioma effused, tomentose, easily separable from the substratum. Hymenial surface even, dark coffee-brown. Margin indistinct. Subiculum concolourous to slightly darker, darkening in KOH. Hyphal strands absent. Subicular hyphae brown, thick-walled, (4- )5-8 µm wide, with clamps at nearly all septa. In 10% KOH the hyphae swell considerably, becoming 7-11 µm wide. The walls are often not homogeneous, but have a layered appearance, not only when mounted in KOH, but also in water. Subhymenial hyphae subhyaline to yellowish, 5-7 µm wide, with clamps. Basidia rarely intact, up to 10 µm wide. Spores globose to subglobose, rarely somewhat irregular, brown, echinulate to typically aculeate, thin- to slightly thick-walled, 7.5-9(-9.5) µm diam; spines up to 1.5 µm long. On Betula.

 

S. subvinosum Schw. 1832

 

      Sporotrichum subvinosum Schw. - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. (N.S.) 4: 273. 1832 (" 1831 ").

 

      The type material contains a species of Tomentella. Basidioma effused, arachnoid to pellicular, separable. Hymenial surface even, pale brown. Subiculum concolourous. Margin indistinct. Hyphal strands present, not abundant. Subicular hyphae pale brown, thick-walled, 4-6 µm wide, with clamps. Individual hyphae of strands 3-4 µm wide. Subhymenial hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, somewhat irregular, 3-6(-7) µm wide, sometimes with swellings up to 10 µm wide. Basidia 10-14 µm wide. Spores subglobose to irregular, rarely lobed, echinulate, yellowish, 9-12.5 x (7- )8-10 µm.

      The original description gave the colour as vinaceous to purplish. The colour is now pale brown, presumably due to fading. The species belongs to Tomentella and is tentatively identified as T. avellanea (Burt) Bourd. & Galz., mainly because of the wide basidia and the presence of hyphal strands. The original darker colour and the irregularities in the subhymenial hyphae differ from the general concept of T. avellanea, but suggest T. sublilacina (Ellis & Holway) Wakef. Although S. subvinosum is an older name for the species, the epithet is not available in Tomentella because of T. subvinosa (Burt) Bourd. & Galz. 1924.

 

S. sulfurescens v. Beyma 1928

 

Sporotrichum sulfurescens v. Beyma - Verh. K. ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk. 26: 16. 1928 = Beauveria sulfurescens (v. Beyma) J. Taylor - Mycologia 62: 820. 1970. [p. 87]

 

The name is a synonym of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., as stated by de Hoog (1972).

 

S. sulphureum Grev. : Fr. 1822

 

      Sporotrichum sulphureum Grev. - Mem. Werner. Soc. 4: 69. 1822 (basionym) = Sporotrichum sulphureum Grev. : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 423. 1832 = Arthrographis sulphurea (Grev.) Stalpers & van Oorschot, comb. nov.

 

      The type specimen (PC) is in good condition. The species is a synonym of Arthrographis kalrai (Tewari & Macpherson) Sigler & Carmichael and was well described by Sigler & Carmichael (1976).

 

S. symphyti Bres. 1926

 

      Sporotrichum symphyti Bres.-Stud. Trent. 2, 7: 23. 1926.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in S. The description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. tela (Pers.) Link 1824

 

      Himantia tela Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 91. 1822 = Sporotrichum tela (Pers.) Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 20. 1824.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (L) contains a basidiomycete with white rhizomorphs. Fries (1832) also considered it a sterile mycelium.

 

S. tenue (Corda) Rabenh. 1844

 

      Capillaria tenuis Corda - Icon. Fung. 1: 10. 1837 = Sporotrichum tenue (Corda) Rabenh. - Deutschl. Krypt. F1.1: 81. 1844.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type specimen (PRM) contains Ozonium-like hyphae with clamps and brown hyphae without clamps.

 

S. tenuissimum Grev. 1822

 

      Sporotrichum tenuissimum Grey. - Mem. Werner. Soc. 4: 69.1822.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type material (E) contains no identifiable fungus, as earlier stated by Wakefield and Bisby (1941).

 

S. terrestre P. Karst. 1891

 

      Sporotrichum terrestre P. Karst. - Meddn Soc. Fauna Flora fenn. 18: 66. 1891.

 

      The type specimen (H) contains Costantinella micheneri (Berk. & Curt.) Hughes, as stated by Hughes (1958). It is not to be confused with C. terrestris (Link) Hughes 1958.

 

S. terricola Grove 1912

 

      Sporotrichum terricola Grove - J. Bot., Lond. 50: 13. 1912. [p. 88]

 

The type specimen (K) is an Aspergillus of the glaucus group, but not A. terricola Marchal.

 

S. thebaicum Link 1824

 

      Sporotrichum thebaicum Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 6. 1824.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not in B or L. The description does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. thermale Mont. 1858

 

      Sporotrichum thermale Mont. - Annls Sci. nat. Sér. 4, Bot. 9: 163. 1858.

 

      Nomen confusum. The type specimen (PC) contains a Coniophora sp., parasitized by a species of Acremonium. The description is based on the hyphae of the Acremonium and young basidiospores of the Coniophora.

 

S. thermophilum Apinis 1963

 

      Sporotrichum thermophilum Apinis - Nova Hedwigia 5: 74. 1963 = Chrysosporium thermophilum (Apinis) Klopotek - Arch. Mikrobiol. 98: 366. 1974 = Myceliophthora thermophila (Apinis) van Oorschot - Persoonia 9: 406. 1977.

 

      This species, which is the anamorph of Thielavia heterothallica Klopotek, belongs to Myceliophthora. It should not be nomenclatorally confused with the anamorph of Thielavia thermophila Fergus & Sinden (= Corynascus thermophilus (Fergus & Sinden) Klopotek), which is Myceliophthora fergusii (Klopotek) van Oorschot (van Oorschot, 1977).

 

S. thuemeni Sacc. 1886

 

      Sporotrichum thuemeni Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 104. 1886.

 

      The name is based on Thümen’s description of S. luteo-album (see under S. luteo-album) which Saccardo considered as distinct from S. luteo-album Link. Thümen’s diagnosis (as S. luteo-album Link) is an exact copy of Link’s diagnosis with the following addition: "Hyphae hyalinae, tenuissimae, simplices aut obsolete ramosae, sporis depresso-globosis, dilute ochroleucis subpellucidis, 5 µm diam". Thümen evidently had no intention to describe a new species, although Saccardo (1886) stated otherwise. On formal grounds S. thuemeni must be considered an obligate synonym of S. luteo-album Link : Fr.

 

S. tortuosum Wallr. 1833

 

      Sporotrichum tortuosum Wallr. 1833 - Fl. crypt. Germ. 2, 280 (nr. 1860). 1833 = Sarcopodium tortuosum (Wallr.) Hughes 1958 - Can. J. Bot. 36: 802. 1958.

 

      The type specimen (STR) belongs to Sarcopodium and was described in detail by Sutton (1973). [p. 89]

 

S. tortuosum Sacc. & Therry 1882

 

      Sporotrichum tortuosum Sacc. & Therry apud Sacc. - Michelia 2: 635. 1882 [non S. tortuosum Wallr. 1833] = S. flexuosum Sacc. & Therry apud Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 112. 1886.

 

      The type specimen (PAD) contains a species of Nodulisporium. The material is scanty and few intact conidiogenous cells were seen. Identification to species is not possible.

 

S. torulosum Bon. 1851

 

      Sporotrichum torulosum Bon. - Handb. allg. Mykol., p. 102. 1851 = Rhinocladium torulosum (Bon.) Sacc. & Marchal apud Sacc. - Syll. Fung. 4: 295. 1886.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type probably not extant. Hughes (1980) studied a specimen in PAD on which "the description (by Saccardo) of Rhinocladium torulosum is evidently based". This specimen is Virgaria nigra (Link : Fr.) Nees. According to Hughes, Bonorden’s specimen may well have been the same species.

 

S. torulosum Auersw. 1865

 

      Sporotrichum torulosum Auersw. apud Fuckel - Fungi rhen. No. 1521. 1865. [non S. torulosum Bon.].

 

      The name is based on Fuckel’s exsiccatum only, labelled "S. torulosum Awd." fide Hughes (1980).

 

S. traversianum Pasinetti & Buzzati-Traverso 1935

 

      Sporotrichum traversianum Pasinetti & Buzzati-Traverso - Nuovo G. bot. ital. N. S.42: 121. 1935.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in PAD. The description and figure do not allow a positive identification.

 

S. triumfettae Hansf. 1943

 

      Sporotrichum triumfettae Hansf. - Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., 1942-43: 41.1943 = Hansfordia triumfettae (Hansf.) Hughes - Mycol. Pap. 43: 16. 1952.

 

      The species belongs to Hansfordia. Deighton (1972) considered it a synonym of H. pulvinata (Berk. & Curt.) Hughes.

 

S. tropicale Panja et al. 1947

 

      Sporotrichum tropicale Panja, Dey & Ghosh - Indian med. Gaz. 82: 202.1947. Nomen inval. (Art. 36 ICBN).

 

      De Hoog (1974) considered it a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins. [p. 90]

 

S. turbinatum (Kunze & Schmidt : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

      Polyactis turbinata Kunze & Schmidt - Mykol. Hefte 1: 83. 1817 = Monilia turbinata (Kunze & Schmidt) Pers. - Mycol. Eur. 1: 31. 1822 = Botrytis turbinata (Kunze & Schmidt) Link - Linn. Sp. Pl. 6: 60. 1824 = Sporotrichum turbinatum (Kunze & Schmidt Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 417. 1832.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not found, not in B. The original diagnosis does not give a clue to its identity.

 

S. uvarum (Karamboloff) Windisch 1952

 

      Oospora uvarum Karamboloff - Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde, Abt. 2, 84: 86. 1931 = Sporotrichum uvarum (Karamboloff) Windisch - Beitr. Biol Pfl. 29: 161. 1952.

 

      Type probably not extant. De Hoog (pers. comm.) after studying the diagnosis, suggested that it could be the anamorph of Cephaloascus fragrans Hanawa.

 

S. vellereum Sacc. & Speg. 1880

 

      Sporotrichum vellereum Sacc. & Speg. apud Sacc. - Michelia 2: 287. 1880 = Myceliophthora vellerea (Sacc. & Speg. apud Sacc.) van Oorschot - Stud. Mycol. 20: 47. 1980.

 

      The type specimen (PAD) belongs to Myceliophthora.

 

S. vellereum var. flavum Sacc. 1882

 

      Sporotrichum vellereum var. flavum Sacc. - Michelia 2: 635. 1882.

 

      Type not extant in PAD, but there is a drawing of the type material by Vuillemin (1911). On that basis Carmichael (1962) identified the species as Chrysosporium merdarium (Link : Fr.) Carmichael.

 

S. vellereum Speg. var. griseum Boulanger 1895

 

      S. vellereum var. griseum Boulanger - Revue gén. Bot. 7: 97. 1895.

 

      See under S. boulangerii.

 

S. versisporum (Lloyd) Stalpers 1984

 

      See p. 25.

 

S. verticillatum Spreng. 1827

 

      Sporotrichum verticillatum Spreng. - Syst. Veg. Car. Linnaei 4: 548. 1827

 

      Type not seen. Hughes (1958) considered it the Gonytrichum state of Chaetosphaeria inaequalis (Grove) W. Gams & Hol.-Jech. (= Gonytrichum caesium Nees : Fr.). [p. 91]

 

S. verticillatum Neophytova 1955

 

      Sporotrichum verticillatum Neophytova - Not. syst. Sect. crypt. Inst. bot. Acad. Sci. USSR (Bot. Mater.) 10: 161. 1955 [non S. verticillatum Spreng. 1827].

 

      According to the description and drawing the species is Geomyces pannorum (Link) Sigler & Carmichael.

 

S. verticilloides A. Sartory et al. 1935

 

      Sporotrichum verticilloides A. Sartory, R. Sartory & Meyer - C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 201: 1501. 1935.

 

      The species is considered a synonym of Sporothrix schenckii Hektoen & Perkins by de Hoog (1974).

 

S. vesicarum Link 1818

 

      Sporotrichum vesicarum Link Jb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 180. 1818 (basionym) = Basipetospora vesicarum (Link) Stalpers comb. nov.

 

      The main part of the type specimen (B) contains the Basipetospora anamorph of Monascus ruber van Tieghem, which is in agreement with the original diagnosis. Fries (1832) incorrectly considered it a synonym of Sporotrichum roseum Link.

 

S. vile P. Karst. 1891

 

      Sporotrichum vile P. Karst. - Hedwigia 30: 303. 1891 = Verticillium vile (P. Karst.) Hughes - Can. J. Bot. 36: 823. 1958.

 

      Nomen dubium. The type specimen (H) on Brassica napa contains an Acremonium-like fungus, but rarely 2-3 phialides are arranged in a whorl. Verticillate phialides would render it a synonym of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. If these whorls are not observed the species might be identified as Acremonium strictum W. Gams or A. sclerotigenum (F. & V. Moreau ex Valenta) W. Gams.

 

S. vinosum (Schw. : Fr.) Fr. 1832

 

      Sporotrichum vinosum (Schw. : Fr.) Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 421. 1832 = Dematium vinosum Schw. - Syn. Fung. Carol. super. p. 129. 1822.

 

      Nomen dubium. Type not seen, not in PH. The original diagnosis does not allow a positive identification.

 

S. virescens (Pers.) Link 1809

 

      Dematium virescens Pers. - Tent. Dispos. meth. Fung. p. 41. 1797 = Sporotrichum virescens (Pers.) Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin, 3: 13. 1809 = Chloridium virescens (Pers.) W. Gams & Hol. - Jech. - Stud. Mycol. 13: 17. 1976.

 

      Hughes (1958) considered the species to be the Helicosporium state of Ophionectria cerea. Gams and Holubová-Jechová (1976) did not recognize Persoon’s material in L as the type specimen, because it did not fit the original diagnosis. [p. 92] They accepted Fries’ (1832) synonymy, considered the species as the anamorph of Chaetosphaeria vermicularioides (Sacc. & Roum.) W. Gams & Hol.-Jech. and gave a detailed description.

      Link’s combination in Sporotrichum is based on his own material. Later (1818) he considered S. virescens distinct from Dematium virescens (see below).

 

S. virescens Link : Fr. 1818

 

      Sporotrichum virescens Link - Jahrb. Gewächsk. 1, 1: 180. 1818 = Sporotrichum virescens Link : Fr. - Syst. mycol. 3: 420. 1832.

 

      Type not found, not in L or B. Link was particularly uncertain about this species. In 1818 he explicity considered it distinct from Dematium virescens Pers., with which he had earlier (1809) synonymized it. Still later (Link, 1824), he had it both ways: he cited it as S. virescens Link 1809 excl. syn. and listed Dematium virescens Pers. under the synonyms. In an additional note he considered it a doubtful species. Fries (1832), who sanctioned it as "S. virescens Lk excl. syn.", supposed it to be Trichoderma viride.

 

S. viridiflavum Sacc. 1901

 

      Sporotrichum viridiflavum Sacc. apud D. Sacc. - Mycoth. ital. no. 775. 1901.

 

      The type specimen (PAD) contains a species of Gliocladium with hyaline sclerotia about 50 µm diam and cylindrical to narrowly ellipsoidal conidia, 5.5-7 x 2.5-3 µm.

 

S. vitellinum Link : Fr. 1809

 

      S. vitellinum Link - Mag. Ges. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3: 13. 1809 = Sporotrichum vitellinum Link : Fr. 1832 - Syst. mycol. 3: 423. 1832.

 

      The type specimen (B) contains a basidiomycete with hyaline, clamped, subhymenial hyphae and numerous basidiospores, which are hyaline, ellipsoidal to ovoid, 4-7(-7.5) x (2.5-)3-4 µm, thick-walled, dextrinoid, indistinctly apiculate. Basidia and other hymenial structures absent. The species belongs to Leucogyrophana and is doubtless the "Xylophagus" mentioned by Link in the diagnosis. It is not clear if elements of this species were incorporated in Link’s description of S. vitellinum or if Link described something else.

 

S. viticola Schw. 1832

 

      Sporotrichum viticola Schw. - Trans. Am. phil. Soc. (N.S.) 4: 273. 1832 ("1831").

 

      The type specimen (PH) contains Tomentella bryophila (Pers.) M. J. Larsen. It agrees with the description of Larsen (1974), except that the subiculum is paler. This may be due to the long storage, a phenomenon known from other species of Tomentella (e.g. T. macrospora Höhn. & Litsch.). [p. 93]

 

S. xylophilum G. P. Agarwal & S. M. Singh 1972

 

      Sporotrichum xylophilum G. P. Agarwal & S. M. Singh - Sydowia 25: 220. 1972 ("1971").

 

      The type specimen (IMI) contains the anamorph of Punctularia atropurpurascens (Berk. & Br.) Petch, generally known as Ptychogaster rubescens Boud. (von Arx, 1973).

 

 

Acknowledgements

 

      The author is grateful to the curators of the herbaria and culture collections mentioned in the text, not only for the loan of specimens, but also for providing helpful additional data and suggestions. He is obliged to Miss IJ. Vlug for technical assistance, to Mrs A. Spaapen and T. van den Berg for typing the manuscript and to Miss H. Pannebakker for printing the photographs.

      Most of all the author thanks the staff members of the CBS, especially Drs W. Gams, G. S. de Hoog, C. A. N. van Oorschot and R. A. Samson for their help with identifications and for inspiring discussions. He is very grateful to Dr J. Ginns and Mr K. A. Seifert for reviewing the manuscript. [p. 94]

 

 

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