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General information

 Remarks:Yarrowia lipolytica
Characteristics given by other authors
Cell components include glucose and mannose (Stewart-Tull et al. 1966).
Coenzyme Q9 (Yamada & Kondô 1972; Yamada et al. 1976 b).
Mol % of G + C of nuclear DNA: 49.5, 49.6, 49.8, 50.0, 50.2 (Stenderup & Bak 1968; Nakase & Komagata 1971f).
Chromomosome bands: 2 to 6 bands have been reported; Naumova et al. 1993 found 5 or 6 bands in 27 strains; Casaregola et al. 1997 found 5 bands in 8 strains to be consistent with 6 chromosomes.
Where found
Corneal lesion in Italy, rancid margarine, Man, back of cow and soil in the Netherlands, olives in Italy, lung in Argentina, hydrocarbons in France, maize-processing plant, dairy product and kerosene aviation fuel in USA, infected skin and contaminated gas-oil fermentation in Germany, n-paraffin fermentation in Scotland, soil in Russia, fingernail of 49-year-old woman in Austria.
Other information
Although strains of this species usually produce hyphae copiously, two isolates from industry did not form filaments. Rare isolates are self-sporulating diploids. Useful for secreting heterologous proteins (Ogrydziak 1993; Young et al. 1996). Barth & Gaillardin 1996, 1997 reviewed research on this species. Some strains are pectolytic (Barnett et al. 2000).
 
 Link to yeast book 2011:
 
 Taxon name:
 

Sexuality

 Number of ascospores per ascus:1 - 4 
 Asci evanescence:evanescent 
 Asci shape:not club shaped 
 Ascospores with gelatinous sheath:no 
 Ascospores with a groove:no 
 Basidia septation:no basidia 
 Basidia shape:no basidia 
 Basidia catenate-solitary:no basidia 
 Teliospores:no teliospores 
 Sexual reproduction:ascomycetous 
 
Ascospores shape:
hat shaped no
cap shaped no
saturn shaped no
walnut shaped no
conical no
oblong no
round no
 
oval yes
smooth no
rough yes
reniform no
allantoid no
needle shaped no
whip like no
 
 
Conjugation:
cell with cell variable
cell with its bud no
 
clamp connexions no
pseudoclamp connexions no
 
 Conditions for sporulation:V8 agar and YM agar at 25°C, usually only after mixing of sexually compatible strains 

Morphology

 
Macro-morphology
 Reddish diffusing pigment:not produced 
 Colony margin:other 
 
Colony colour:
white no
cream yes
yellowish no
orange no
 
pink no
red no
buff no
dark brown to black no
 
 
Colony appearance:
arachnoid no
farinose no
smooth yes
 
venose no
warty no
furrowed no
 
 
Colony texture:
fluid no
mucoid no
 
butyrous yes
membranous yes
 
 
Micro-mophology
 Filaments:pseudohyphae and/or septate hyphae 
 
Asexual reproduction:
fission no
budding yes
multilateral budding yes
bipolar budding no
monopolar budding no
sympodial budding no
annellidic (percurrent) budding no
 
on sterigma no
on denticles no
arthroconidia no
chlamydospores no
endospores no
symmetrical ballistoconidia no
asymmetrical ballistoconidia no
 
 
Cell shape:
lemon no
triangular no
lunate no
allantoid no
dumb-bell shaped no
 
round yes
oval yes
cylindrical no
fusiform no
   
 

Physiology

 
Fermentation
 D-Glucose (F1):negative 
 D-Galactose (F2):negative 
 Maltose (F3):negative 
 Me a-D-Glucoside (F4):negative 
 Sucrose (F5):negative 
 a,a-Trehalose (F6):negative 
 Melibiose (F7):negative 
 Lactose (F8):negative 
 Cellobiose (F9):negative 
 Melezitose (F10):negative 
 Raffinose (F11):negative 
 Inulin (F12):negative 
 Starch (F13):negative 
 D-Xylose (F14):negative 
 
Assimilation-Growth
  50% D-Glucose (O4):variable 
  60% D-Glucose (O5):no growth 
 Starch formation (M1):no 
 Acid acetic production (M2):no 
 Urea hydrolysis (M3):variable 
 Diazonium Blue B reaction (M4):negative 
 Methanol (C41):no growth 
 Ethanol (C42):weak, delayed growth 
 
Yeasts physiological data:
C1 D-Glucose +
C2 D-Galactose -, +
C3 L-Sorbose -, +
C4 D-Glucosamine -
C5 D-Ribose -, +
C6 D-Xylose -, d, w
C7 L-Arabinose -
C8 D-Arabinose -, +
C9 L-Rhamnose -
C10 Sucrose -
C11 Maltose -
C12 a,a-Trehalose -
C13 Me a-D-Glucoside -
C14 Cellobiose -
C15 Salicin -, d, w
C16 Arbutin -, d, w
C17 Melibiose -
C18 Lactose -
C19 Raffinose -
C20 Melezitose -
C21 Inulin -, d, w
C22 Starch -
C23 Glycerol +
C24 Erythritol +
C25 Ribitol -, +
C26 Xylitol -, d, w
C27 L-Arabinitol -
C28 D-Glucitol +, d, w
C29 D-Mannitol +, d, w
C30 Galactitol -
C31 myo-Inositol -
C32 D-Glucono-1,5-lactone +, d, w
C33 2-Keto-D-Gluconate -, +
C34 5-Keto-D-Gluconate -
C35 D-Gluconate -, +
C36 D-Glucuronate -
C37 D-Galacturonate -
C38 DL-Lactate -, +
C39 Succinate +, d, w
C40 Citrate +, d, w
C43 Propane 1,2 diol -, +
C44 Butane 2,3 diol -
C45 Quinic acid -
C46 D-glucarate -
C47 D-Galactonate -
C48 Palatinose ?
C49 Levulinate ?
C50 L-Malic acid ?
 
C51 L-Tartaric acid ?
C52 D-Tartaric acid ?
C53 meso-Tartaric acid ?
C54 Galactaric acid ?
C55 Uric acid ?
C56 Gentobiose ?
C57 Ethylene glycol ?
C58 Tween 40 ?
C59 Tween 60 ?
C60 Tween 80 ?
N1 Nitrate -
N2 Nitrite -, +
N3 Ethylamine +, d, w
N4 L-Lysine +
N5 Cadaverine -, +
N6 Creatine -
N7 Creatinine -
N8 Glucosamine -
N9 Imidazole -
N10 D-Tryptophan -, d, w
N11 D-Proline ?
N12 Putrescine ?
V1 w/o vitamins -, d, w
V2 w/o myo-Inositol +
V3 w/o Pantothenate +
V4 w/o Biotin -, +
V5 w/o Thiamin -, +
V6 w/o Biotin & Thiamin -
V7 w/o Pyridoxine -, +
V8 w/o Pyridoxine & Thiamin -, +
V9 w/o Niacin -, +
V10 w/o PABA -, +
O1 Cycloheximide 0.01% +
O2 Cycloheximide 0.1% +
O3 Acetic acid 1% -
O6 10% NaCl -, +
O7 16% NaCl -
O8 Growth at pH=3 ?
O9 Growth at pH=9.5 ?
O10 Fluconazole ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
 
 
Temperatures
 
Temperatures growths tests :
at 4ºC ?
at 12ºC ?
at 15ºC ?
at 18ºC ?
at 21ºC ?
at 25ºC yes
 
at 30ºC yes
at 35ºC variable
at 37ºC no
at 40ºC no
at 42ºC no
at 45ºC no
 

Bibliography

 Literature:
 

DNA

 
Sequences
 rDNA sequences 26S:
 
 rDNA sequences 18S:
 
 rDNA sequences ITS:
 
 Miscellaneous sequences:
 
 Sequences URLs_Url:
 

Pictures

 Pictures_Link:
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  • 2/6614-veg2.JPG