Search on : Russula species



General information

Africa no
North America no
S. and C. America no
Asia no
Australia no
Europe yes
 Authority:Kromb. ex. Lange 
 Synonyms and close species:C: R. firmula
other forms of cuprea
 Information given by author(s):Insidiosae urentinae
Type : 57-59
 Host(s):Deciduous (Carpinus) 
 Taxon name_Mycobank:


 Width of stipe:(5) 7 - 20 
 Form of base of stipe:Not radicate 
 Form of stipe:Infl. at top/base/straight 
 Context of stipe:Partly hollow to solid/both 
Main color(s) of stipe::
grey/black variable
brown yes
white yes
yellow/cream variable
blue no
orange no
red/pink no
purple/vinaceous no
green no
 Length of stipe:(25) 35 - 70 
 Type of pileipellis:Smooth to squamose or both 
 Striations of pileus:Weak to strong or both 
 Viscosity of pileus:Variable 
 Form of center of pileus:Concave to plane or both 
 Separability of pileus:Medium (from25% to 75%) 
Thickness of flesh of pileus
 Thickness of flesh of pileus:Medium or both 
Main color(s) of pileus::
grey/black variable
brown yes
white variable
yellow/cream yes
blue no
orange yes
red/pink yes
purple/vinaceous yes
green no
 Diameter of pileus:(20) 33 - 75 (110) 
 Spacing of lamellae:Variable 
 Number of lamellulae:Less than lamellae 
 Furcation of lamellae:At the stipe/absent 
 Color of ridges of lamellae:Fully concolorous with faces 
 Attachment of lamellae:Decurrent/adnate/free 
 Type of lamellae:Fragile/breakable 
 Type of lamellar ridges:Entire/smooth 
Main color(s) of lamellae::
grey/black no
brown no
white no
yellow/cream yes
blue no
orange yes
red/pink no
purple/vinaceous no
green no
 Odor:Variable/weak and pleasant 
 Flavor of flesh:Bitter to burning or both 
Color changes
 Fruit body turns green/blue with age:Not turning green/blue 
 Fruit body turns red if touched/cut:Not turning red 
 Fruit body turns yellow-brown with age:Entire fruit body 
 Fruit body turns br. yellow if touched:Not turning bright yellow 
 Fruit body turns black with age/touched:Not blackening 
Chemical reactions
 Ga´ac test on flesh:Variable/weak reaction 
Color(s) of fresh latex::
grey/black no
brown no
white no
yellow/cream no
blue no
orange no
red/pink no
purple/vinaceous no
green no
Color(s) of dry latex::
grey/black no
brown no
white no
yellow/cream no
blue no
orange no
red/pink no
purple/vinaceous no
green no


 Length of spores:8.5 - 10 (11) 
 Width of spores:6.7 - 8.2 (8.5) 
 Amyloid plage:Present 
 Appearance of spores verrucae:Tips acute to rounded/both 
 Ornamentations in surface view:Round bases 
 Connection(s) between verrucae:No ornament./smooth or so 
 Overall appearance of spores:Not reticulate 
 Height of verrucae:0.5 < x < 2 µm 
 Color of spore deposit:26 
 Pictures from Romagnesi, 1967_Link:
  • 3\382a2.jpg
  • 3\382a3.jpg
 Length of basidia:(35) 40 - 52 
 Width of basidia:10 - 13 
 Number of sterigmata per basidium:Four 
 Length of pleurocystidia:(60) 68 - 132 
 Width of pleurocystidia:(8) 10 - 13.5 (16.5) 
 Thickness of wall of pleurocystidia:Thin (all structures < 2 µm) 
 Shape of apices of pleurocystidia:Mainly capit./append./acerate 
 Sulfo-vanillin test on pleurocystidia:Blue/black/red/pur./or./brown 
Pleurocystidia abundance::
absent no
very dispersed 0-350/mm² no
dispersed 350-700/mm² no
rather abund 700-1500/mm² variable
abundant 1500-3000/mm² yes
very abundant >3000/mm² yes
Marginal cells
 Length of marginal cells:0 
 Width of marginal cells:0 
 Differentiation of supra and subpellis:Obvious 
 Size of cells in supra and subpellis:Same in size 
 Width of pileocystidia:3.5 - 8.5 (10) 
 Location of pileocystidia:Suprapellis 
 Septation of pileocystidia:Usually septate 
 Shape of apices of pileocystidia:Variable 
Hyphae of pileus
 Diameter of ends of pileipellis hyphae:2 - 3 (5) 
 Diameter of primordial hyphae:0 
 Vacuolar pigments of hyphae of pileus:Present 
 Membrane pigments of hyphae of pileus:Absent 
 Wall of hyphae of pileus:Thin (<1 µm) 
 Filamentous hyphae of pileus:Absent